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19.Response of Seed.full

19.Response of Seed.full

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Published by: TJPRC Publications on May 09, 2013
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International Journal of Agricultural Scienceand Research (IJASR)ISSN 2250-0057Vol. 3 Issue 2, Jun 2013 163-174© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
Department of Horticulture, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan
Department of Crop Physiology, Sindh Agriculture University, Tandojam, Sindh, Pakistan
Ayub Agriculture Research Institute, Faisalabad, Punjab, Pakistan
Better germination and vigor of the seedlings are main problems for the success of stand establishment of crop plants. The present study was therefore conducted on seed priming with boron to observe the efficacy of priming ongermination and growth related attributes of the broccoli seedlings. Broccoli seeds (cultivar Marathon) of SAKATA SeedCompany were soaked in boric acid solution at 0.01, 0.05, 0.5 and 1% (w/v) for 18 hours. Seeds were also soaked indistilled water (hydropriming) and unprimed seeds were taken as control. All primed and non-primed seeds were grown inearthen pots contained sandy clay loam soil with EC 0.74 dS/m, pH 7.8, organic matter (0.71%), total nitrogen content(0.06%), available phosphorus 3.6 mg kg
, exchangeable potassium 168 mg kg
and Boron 0.48 ppm. The results revealedthat Germination percentage (GP), Mean germination time (MGT), Germination index (GI), Seedling vigor index (SVI),Chlorophyll content, Shoot and root related attributes were significantly influenced by primed seeds as compared tounprimed seeds. The highest germination index (6.289), seedling vigor index (1753.3), chlorophyll content (4.137 mg ml
)and less mean germination time (3.23 days), maximum length of shoot (5.97 cm), root (11.57 cm), weight of the shoot(15.35 g) and root (2.68 g) were observed from the treatment where seeds were primed with boron solution at the lowestconcentration of 0.01%.
Seed Priming, Boron, Germination, Seedling Vigor 
Broccoli (
 Brassica oleracea
) is one of the main cole crops of Brassicaceae or cruciferae family. It is supposed to be the first of the Cole crops evolved from the wild species of cabbage or kale (Rubatzky and Yamaguchi, 1997). Broccoli,a rich source of vitamin C, E, B1, carotenoids, phenolic and possess anticancer properties (Goncalves et al., 2011).Consumption of broccoli is increasing day by day as staple food due to its health promoting properties. Broccoli is green incolor due to chlorophyll within the sepals of the floral buds and grown as an annual crop for its immature flower buds(Gray, 1982; Jett et al., 1995). In most of the annual crops yield losses occur due to poor germination rate and standestablishment of the crop (Eskandari and Kazemi, 2012). Uniform and better stand establishment of the crop may allowgrower to reduce costs and increases harvest efficiency (Heather and Sieczka, 1991).Better germination and vigor seedlings are the main basic foundations for the success of stand establishment of any crop plant. Various seed technologies including priming, coating and conditioning of the seeds are applied to improvegermination and emergence in seeds of many crops (Arif 
et al 
., 2008; Taylor et. al., 1998). Seed priming is a technique inwhich seeds are soaked in solutions of low water potential that initiates pre-germinative metabolic activity but preventsradical protrusion (Bradford, 1986; McDonald, 2000; Ashraf and Foolad, 2005; Farooq et al., 2006; Janmohammadi
et al 
.,2008). However, the beneficial effects of seed priming have been well documented in many research based published data
Noor-Un-Nisa Memon, Moula Bux Gandahi, Vajanti Mala Pahoja & Nasim Sharif 
include early germination; improves germination rate (Dahal et al., 1990; Jett et al., 1996; Bradford, 1986; Taylor andHarman, 1990; Ghassemi-Golezani et al., 2008); breaks dormancy (Cantliffe et al., 1984; Wurr and Fellows, 1984)improves seedling vigor (Harris, 1996; Saber et al., 2012); strengthens stand establishment (Khan et al., 1992; Jett et al.,1995; Arif et al., 2005; Ali et al., 2007; Diniz et al., 2009) and increase yield (Rengel and Graham, 1995a, 1995b; Yilmazet al., 1998). Besides all these beneficial effects, seed priming also reduce leakage of metabolites, repairs deteriorated seed parts, improve RNA and protein synthesis (McDonald, 2000). Number of priming treatments are generally in use including hydro, halo, osmo, thermo and matrix priming(Khan, 1992; McDonald, 2000; Basra et al., 2005; Ghiyasi et al., 2008). Every technique responds differently in variouscrops. These various priming technique have been successfully applied for their beneficial effects in many agronomiccrops including wheat, sugar beet, maize, soybean and sunflower, rice (Khajeh-Hosseini
et al 
., 2003; Sadeghian andYavari, 2004; Iqbal et al., 2012; Rehman et al., 2012; Ahmad et al., 2012). However very few studies have also beenconducted in vegetable crops including summer squash (Atta Aly, 1998); common beans (Mohondas, 1985); water melon(Elmstrom, 1985); carrot and onions (Brocklehurst and Dearman, 1983); okra (Mereddy et al., 2000; Shah et al., 2011);tomato (Afzal et al., 2011; Nawaz et al., 2011); hot pepper (Amjad et al., 2007); lentil (Saglam et al., 2010) and Dil(Mirshekari, 2012). Nutripriming is now recently focused by using macro or micronutrient enriched seeds as reported by Rehman etal. (2012) and Mirshekari (2012). Generally nutrients are delivered to plants as soil applications, fertigation or foliar spray(Johnson et al., 2005; Rober, 2008). Applying nutrients as seed treatment, through seed coating and seed priming, isanother option which avoids aforementioned risks (Farooq
et al 
., 2012). The use of micronutrient-enriched seeds (seed priming) has been reported to be a better strategy in overcoming micronutrient deficiencies (Musakhandov, 1984; Harris etal. 1999). Priming the seeds with micronutrients makes them able to rapidly imbibe water and revive metabolism andgermination. This then results in a higher germination rate (Rowse, 1995), improved stand establishment, increaseddrought and pest tolerance, and ultimately higher yields (Harris et al., 1999).Boron is one of the essential micronutrient for all vascular plants (Warington, 1923). It is absorbed from the soil by plants as borate. Since boron is non-mobile in plants, and continuous supply from soil or planting media is required inall plant meristems. Deficiency or toxicity of boron causes severe reduction in crop yield, which is due to disturbance inmetabolic events involving boron (Brown
et al 
., 2002). Boron has vital role in the formation of proteins, nitrogenmetablolism, cell division, cell membrane integrity, cell wall formation, nucleic acids, and antioxidative systems (Parr andLoughman, 1983; Gupta et al., 1985; Cakmak and Ro¨mheld, 1997;Goldbach and Wimmer, 2007; Bonilla
et al 
., 2009;Koshiba
et al 
., 2009). It has also vital role in the process of transpiration for the movement of potassium to the stomata of the leaf. Boron also maintains stable balance between sugars and starches, pollination and seed production (Gupta et al.,1985). Seed priming with macro or micro nutrient application is recently done on various agronomic crops including dill(Mirshekari, 2012), rice (Kalita
et al 
., 2002; Johnson
et al 
., 2005), maize (Harris
et al 
., 2007); wheat and lentil (Jhonson
et al.
, 2005, Iqbal
et a
l., 2012). There is no report reported in vegetables except dill (Mirshekari, 2012).
The experiment was carried out at horticulture garden, Department of Horticulture Sindh Agriculture University,Tandojam, Pakistan located at 25
25’60’N 68
31’ 60E, altitude 19.5 m asl. Broccoli seeds CV. Marathon of SAKATA
seed company were used in the present study to observe the efficacy of seed priming with boron on germination andgrowth attributes of seedlings. Twenty broccoli seeds were soaked in solution of 0.01, 0.05, 0.5 and 1% boric acid solution
Response of Seed Priming with Boron on Germination and Seedling Sprouts of Broccoli
(w/v) for 18 hours. Seeds were also soaked in distilled water (hydropriming) and unprimed seeds were taken as control.The seeds were surface washed thrice with distilled water and dried at room temperature. All primed and unprimed seedswere planted in earthen pots containing soil. The soil was analyzed for soil texture by Bouyoucos Hydrometer method, pHof 1:5 soil-water extract by pH meter, EC of 1:5 soil-water extract by EC meter, organic matter by Walkley-Black, totalnitrogen by Kjeldahl's method, available phosphorus by Olsen, exchangeable potassium by extraction with ammoniumacetate and boron by hot water method. The soil was sandy clay loam, non-saline in nature with EC 0.74 dS/m and slightlyalkaline in reaction with pH 7.8. The soil was also low in organic matter (0.71%), total nitrogen content (0.06%), available phosphorus 3.6 mg kg
, exchangeable potassium 168 mg kg
and Boron 0.48 ppm. Monthly mean minimum and maximumtemperatures and other related data of weather was also recorded and presented in
Table 1
.The data was recorded for Germination Percentage (GP), Mean Germination Time (MGT), Germination Index (GI),Seedling Vigor Index (SVI), length and fresh weight of shoot and root, electrolyte leakage of leaf and chlorophyll content of  broccoli sprouts.
Germination percentage
-Germination was checked on every alternative day for six days and the germination percentage was calculated by using following equation as described by Larsen and Andreasen (2004).
GP = Σn/ N ×100
 where n is number of germinated seeds at each counting and N is total seeds in each treatment.
 Mean Germination Time
(MGT) was calculated by using following equation of Ellis and Roberts (1981)MGT =
∑ Dn
 where n is the number of seeds germinated on day D and D is the number of days as counted from the beginning of germination.
Germination index
(GI) was calculated by the formula given by the Association of Offi cial Seed Analysts (1983)GI = Number of germinated seeds + ---------- + ---------- + Number of germinated seedsDays of first count Days of last count
Seedling Vigor Index
(SVI) was calculated by using following formula, Abdul-Baki and Anderson (1970)Vigor index (VI) = [seedling length (cm)× germination percentage]One and half months old seedlings were kept under observation for length and weight of shoot and root, electrolyteleakage of leaf and chlorophyll content of leaf.
 Electrolyte leakage of leaf 
was measured by taking leaf discs of size 1 cm
and weight 0.5 g from randomsamples of leaf. The leaf discs were rinsed well in deionized water prior to incubation in 25 ml of deionized water for 3 h atroom temperature. After incubation, the conductivity (value A) of the bathing solution was measured with the conductivitymeter. The petal discs were boiled with bathing solution for 15 min to lyse all cells. After cooling to room temperature, theconductivity (value B) of the bathing solution was again measured. The electrolyte leakage was expressed as percent valueaccording to the formula given below.Electrolyte leakage of leaf % = (Value A/Value B) 100
Chlorophyll content 
leaf sample of 0.5 g was grinded in 10 mL of 80% acetone and filtered with Whatman paper 1

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