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20.Agri Sci - IJASR -Morphology Characterization of -Full

20.Agri Sci - IJASR -Morphology Characterization of -Full

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International Journal of Agricultural Scienceand Research (IJASR)ISSN 2250-0057Vol. 3 Issue 2, Jun 2013, 175-186© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION OF
CORDIA AFRICANA
POPULATIONS AT SIXPROVENANCES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA
ETEFA GUYASSA
1
, SAMUALE TESFAYE
2
, ANTONY JOSEPH RAJ
3
, ABDU ABDULKADIR 
4
 & ABDELA GURE
5
 
1,2&3
Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, College of Agriculture and NaturalResources, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia
4&5
Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, Ethiopia
ABSTRACT
Cordia africana
is one of the most important indigenous timber trees of Ethiopia. An understanding of how thetree performs in the wild and under domestication will have a far- reaching impact on the proper management andutilization of this important species. To this end, the study was carried out to investigate the morphological growth performance of 
.
africana
population in natural forests and on farmlands (under domestication processes). Six provenances in northern Ethiopia (Mekelle, Kemisie, Zegie, Finote-selam, Dejen and Tikil-dingay) were selected, taking16 to 20 individuals with DBH > 10 cm, from both forest and farmland populations. Sample trees were measured for  branching height (B), total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH) and crown diameter (CD) and ratios B:H, H:DBHand CD:DBH were computed and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. There were significant differences between the provenances of forest grown trees in B:H and CD:DBH ratios while H:DBH ratio was not. Within most provenances allratios were significantly varied between forest and farmland grown trees in which forest trees were superior in bole lengthand total tree height with smaller crown size. This suggests that the current domestication process of the tree is notadequate to obtain a best tree for timber. Therefore, identifying the best provenances and appropriate managements duringdomestication process of 
C. africana
would improve the morphology of the species.
KEYWORDS
:
Cordia Africana, Farmland, Forest Site, Provenance, B: H Ratio, H:DBH Ratio, Cd: DBH Ratio
INTRODUCTION
Cordia africana
(Lam.) which belongs to the family of Boraginaceae (Warfa, 1988)
 
is a deciduous forest treewidely distributed from South Africa to Saudi Arabia and Yemen at altitudes between 550 - 2600 m.a.s.l. and with anannual rainfall of 700 - 2000 mm (Friis, 1992). It occurs in primary or secondary forests and woodlands (Legesse, 1992).In Ethiopia, it grows well in the dry, moist and wet weyna dega agro-ecological zone (Azene, 2007). A severe naturalforest destruction in Ethiopia particularly in the northern part of the country has forced the tree to have scatteredoccurrences in patchy natural forest, on farmlands, in graveyards and church compounds (Jarvholm & Tivell, 1987;Alemayehu, 2004; Abayneh, 2007).
Cordia africana
is a multipurpose tree species and it has good attributes as anagroforestry species (ICRAF, 1998), for soil conservation (Abebe
et al 
., 2001), as fodder plant for honeybees (Friis, 1992)and used for its high-quality timber (Fichtle & Admasu, 1994; Haftom, 2005; Azene, 2007).Like many other deciduous trees species,
.
africana
exhibit repeated branching and problem of straightness(Spurr & Barness, 1980; Pohjonen, 1989; Legesse, 1995). Although these problems can be overcome and the growth performance can be modified by adopting appropriate silvicultural treatment (Smith
et al 
., 1997), no special silviculturaltreatment is designed for this tree to improve its stem form. Instead, the utilization and management of the trees is wellknown by the farmers who deliberately plant or retain this tree species on farmlands (Assegid, 1996; Atakilti, 1996;
 
176
Etefa Guyassa, Samuale Tesfaye, Antony Joseph Raj, Abdu Abdulkadir & Abdela Gure
 
Tesfay, 1996; Million, 2001). The selection, retention or deliberately planting and management of 
.
africana
by farmersindicate the beginning of the domestication process of the species. However, still the tree is being given less attention dueto the lack of silvicultural requirements of the tree (Kidane, 2002), unlike many exotic tree species like
 Eucalyptus
spp.,
 Pinus
spp. and
 Juniperus procera
.Many of the resultant morphological characteristics which are necessary to timber value, including bolelength/branching height, total height, stem diameter are all-important features. However, the morphological performancesof the trees at different provenances (geographical locations) and in natural forests and on the farmland have not been yetreported in Ethiopia, which contributes to the future management of the species. This study therefore aims at characterizingand comparing the growth performances of 
.
africana
grown in natural forests with that grown and managed onfarmlands in different locations or provenances on the basis of ratios of tree dimensions, as well as presenting informationon the species
requirements for silvicultural treatments, site and provenance for successful domestication.
METHODOLOGY
Study Site
The research was carried out in northern Ethiopia at six provenances/locations between latitude 10
0
03' N to 13
0
33' N and longitude 37
0
18' E to 39
0
55' E, where large populations of 
.
africana
are thought to be found: Mekelle,Kemisie, Zegie, Finote-selam, Dejen and Tikil-dingay. The detailed description of the study locations is in Table 1 andFigure 1.
Table 1: Provenances and Corresponding Environment Factors of C. Africana Sampled from Northern EthiopiaCategoriesProvenancesMekelle Kemisie ZegieFinote-selamDejenTikil-dingay
Code Mek Kem Zeg Fin Dej Tik Province Tigray Wollo Gojjam Gojjam Gojjam Gondar Zone Mekelle OromiaB/ Dar LiyuZoneWesternGojamEasternGojam NorthGondar  Northing13
0
28’
-13
0
33’
 10
0
43’
-10
0
50’
 11
0
21’
-11
0
41’
 10
0
30’
-10
0
41’
 10
0
03’
-10
0
11’
 12
0
45’
-12
0
47’
 Easting39
0
26’
-39
0
28'39
0
51’
-39
0
55’
 37
0
18’
-37
0
19’
 37
0
07’
-37
0
15’
 38
0
15’
-38
0
21’
 37
0
24’
-37
0
37’
 Altitude (m)2080-21091450-1480 1803-1812 1848-1855 2020-2080 2095-2105Agro-ecologicalZone (Azene, 2007)Weyna-degaMoist kolla Weyna-dega Weyna-dega Weyna- degaWeyna -degaPopulation of the species(Abayneh, 2007)Scattered Scattered Continuous Scattered Scattered ScatteredAverage Temp. (
0
c)* 18.5 21.5 18.5 20 21.5 20Average Rain Fall (mm)* 603 1025 1618 1157 1380 1366Soil types(NAE, 1988)EutricandcalciccambisolEutric andcalciccambisolChromic andarthicluvisolsDystricnitosolsEutricnitosolsDystricnitosolsForests stand density Sparse Sparse Dense Dense Sparse Sparse- Scattered = trees on farmlands, homesteads, church compounds, graveyards; Weyna-dega= areas with elevation between 1500-2300 m.a.s.l; Moist kolla= areas with altitude between 500-1500 m.a.s.l and high rain fall; Eutric &calcic cambisol = often occur dominantly on sloppy, are shallow and have many stone or rocks; Chromic andarthic luvisols = permeability might be low, drainage and root distribution can be hindered; Dystric nitosols = they
 
Morphology Characterization of 
Cordia africana 
Populations at Six Provenances in Northern Ethiopia
177
 
are deep, good physical property, mostly found on flat to sloppy terrain in high rain fall; Eutric nitosols = oftenoccur on flat to sloppy terrain in high rain fall, good physical property; NAE = National Atlas of Ethiopia; Sparse
 – 
 estimated stand basal area less than 150 m
2
/ha; Dense
 – 
estimated stand basal area greater than 150 m
2
/ha* denotes source from National Meteorology of Ethiopia
Figure 1: Study SitesSampling Technique
To assess the morphology of the tree, 16 to 20 individuals from natural forest and 20 trees from farmland,
with≥10cm DBH (di
ameter at breast height) were sampled. In this paper, natural forest represents church forest, mosqueforest, patches of natural forest while 'domesticated'
.
africana
are those found on farmlands (backyards, cropland,grazing land). Domesticated
.
africana
and forest-grown
.
africana
are used interchangeably with farmland
.
africana
 and wild
.
africana
respectively throughout
 
this paper. Trees in the forest were randomly sampled from forests standsselected at each provenance. The forest stands were selected purposefully which were thought to have large population sizeof the species. A multi-stage sampling method was used to sample
.
africana
from farmlands. First, House holds thoseowned
.
africana
on their farmland were identified through surveying and with the help of key informants (DistrictAgents and elders). The households sorted based on the highest number of the trees they owned.
Tree Measurement
For each tree selected for sampling ≥10 cm DBH, the following data were recorded in each of the study sites for 
 both forest grown and farmlands
.
africana
: DBH, total tree height (H), branching height (B) (height of the lowest living branch) and crown diameter (CD). Stem diameter at breast height was measured by diameter tape, total height and branching height/bole height of each tree was calculated from measurements taken by a hypsometer at a known distancefrom the base of the trunk. Crown diameter of a tree was estimated by the arithmetic mean of two perpendicular directionalmeasurement of the crown, whereby the direction of the first diameter was selected at random and the second was lied outat right angle to it (Philip, 1994). The vertical projections of the edge of the crowns down to the ground were made bySuunto clinometer (Hemery
et al 
., 2005). The projections were marked with pegs and the horizontal distancesmeasurements taken with a tape.
Data Analysis
The Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS ver. 13.0) was used to analyze the data. The ratios for 

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