International Journal of Agricultural Scienceand Research (IJASR)ISSN 2250-0057Vol. 3 Issue 2, Jun 2013, 175-186© TJPRC Pvt. Ltd.
MORPHOLOGY CHARACTERIZATION OF
POPULATIONS AT SIXPROVENANCES IN NORTHERN ETHIOPIA
, SAMUALE TESFAYE
, ANTONY JOSEPH RAJ
, ABDU ABDULKADIR
& ABDELA GURE
Department of Land Resource Management and Environmental Protection, College of Agriculture and NaturalResources, Mekelle University, Mekelle, Tigray, Ethiopia
Wondo Genet College of Forestry and Natural Resources, Hawassa University, Ethiopia
is one of the most important indigenous timber trees of Ethiopia. An understanding of how thetree performs in the wild and under domestication will have a far- reaching impact on the proper management andutilization of this important species. To this end, the study was carried out to investigate the morphological growth performance of
population in natural forests and on farmlands (under domestication processes). Six provenances in northern Ethiopia (Mekelle, Kemisie, Zegie, Finote-selam, Dejen and Tikil-dingay) were selected, taking16 to 20 individuals with DBH > 10 cm, from both forest and farmland populations. Sample trees were measured for branching height (B), total height (H), diameter at breast height (DBH) and crown diameter (CD) and ratios B:H, H:DBHand CD:DBH were computed and analyzed by one-way ANOVA. There were significant differences between the provenances of forest grown trees in B:H and CD:DBH ratios while H:DBH ratio was not. Within most provenances allratios were significantly varied between forest and farmland grown trees in which forest trees were superior in bole lengthand total tree height with smaller crown size. This suggests that the current domestication process of the tree is notadequate to obtain a best tree for timber. Therefore, identifying the best provenances and appropriate managements duringdomestication process of
would improve the morphology of the species.
Cordia Africana, Farmland, Forest Site, Provenance, B: H Ratio, H:DBH Ratio, Cd: DBH Ratio
(Lam.) which belongs to the family of Boraginaceae (Warfa, 1988)
is a deciduous forest treewidely distributed from South Africa to Saudi Arabia and Yemen at altitudes between 550 - 2600 m.a.s.l. and with anannual rainfall of 700 - 2000 mm (Friis, 1992). It occurs in primary or secondary forests and woodlands (Legesse, 1992).In Ethiopia, it grows well in the dry, moist and wet weyna dega agro-ecological zone (Azene, 2007). A severe naturalforest destruction in Ethiopia particularly in the northern part of the country has forced the tree to have scatteredoccurrences in patchy natural forest, on farmlands, in graveyards and church compounds (Jarvholm & Tivell, 1987;Alemayehu, 2004; Abayneh, 2007).
is a multipurpose tree species and it has good attributes as anagroforestry species (ICRAF, 1998), for soil conservation (Abebe
., 2001), as fodder plant for honeybees (Friis, 1992)and used for its high-quality timber (Fichtle & Admasu, 1994; Haftom, 2005; Azene, 2007).Like many other deciduous trees species,
exhibit repeated branching and problem of straightness(Spurr & Barness, 1980; Pohjonen, 1989; Legesse, 1995). Although these problems can be overcome and the growth performance can be modified by adopting appropriate silvicultural treatment (Smith
., 1997), no special silviculturaltreatment is designed for this tree to improve its stem form. Instead, the utilization and management of the trees is wellknown by the farmers who deliberately plant or retain this tree species on farmlands (Assegid, 1996; Atakilti, 1996;