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messenger-no5

messenger-no5

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on Apr 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

~
~
'
,
'
,
\u00df
r
.
i / f '
. . .
T H E
M ESSE
G E R
N o. 5-
J u n e1 9 7 6
G lo b u la r c lu s te .r N G C
1 8 5 1
(R A
=
5h1 2m; D e c l.
=
-
4 0 \u00b0)
fro m
w h ic h X -ra y b u rs ts h a v e b e e n
re p o rte d
o n
F e b ru a ry2 0 ,
~
9
7
6
(lA U
Circular 2913). Reproduced
fro m
E S O
Q u ic k B lu e
G u rv e y
p la te
1 2 4 0
(fie ld
3 0 5 ).
6 0
m in .
e x p o s u re ,
Ila -O
+
G3 8 5 ,E S O 1 m S c h m id t te le s c o p e .
E S O
W o rk s h o po n
O p tic a l S tu d ie s o f X -ra y S o u rc e s
T h e fir s t o f' w h a t ist o b ea s e rie s o f w o rk s h o p s o n d iffe re n t to p ic s h a s ju s t ta k e n p la c ein G e n e v a a t
th eE S OS c ie n \u00dc fic -T e c h n ic a l C e n tre . T h e p u rp o s eo f th e s e w o r k s h o p s is
to g a th e r to g e th e r a n u m b e r o f
E u ro p e a n a s tro n o m e rs w o rk in g
in a w e ll- d e fin e d fie ld
o f re s e a rc h

o ro fin s tru m e n ta l d e v e lo p m e n t to re v ie w th e p re s e n t s ta tu s o f k n o w le d g e , to c o m p a re m e th o d s a n d re s u lts , a n dinp a r tic u la r to c o o r d in a te fu tu re p la n s .Ino r d e r to a c h ie v e th e s e a im s , it is o f o b v io u s im p o r ta n c e th a t a ll E u ro p e a n g r o u p s a c tiv e inth e c h o s e n s u b je c t. b e re p re s e n te d.. A ls o ,' th e w o r k s h o p s s h o u ld b e a s in fo r m a l a s p o s s ib le a n d h a v e a r e la tiv e ly s m a ll n u m b e r o f p a r tic ip a n ts .

.
T h e firs t w o rk s h o pto o k p la c e fro m
April 28-30, 1976
s p e c tro s c o p y ,
p h o to m e try ,
u ltra -ra p id
p h o to m e try ,
a n d
d e a ltw ith
o p tic a l o b s e 'rv a tio n s o f c o m p a c t X -ra y
e tc. . . . T h e o r e tic a l in te re s t is a ls o v e ry h ig h . T h ew o rk -
sourees. There are at least a dozen groups working in
s h o p w a s th e re fo re a tte n d e d b y a b o u t th irty e s p e c ia lly
th is fie ld in E u r o p e a n d th e y u s e a v a r ie tyo fte c h n iq u e s :
in v ite d s c ie n tis ts fro m a llE S O c o u n tr ie s a s w e il a s fro m
E n g la n d , Ita ly a n d th e U S A .
A fte r a n in itia l s e rie so fre v ie w ta lk so n th e p ro p e rtie s
o fc o m p a c t X -ra y s o u rc e s in d iffe re n t. s p e c tra l ra n g e s ,
th e v a rio u s g ro u p s p re s e n te dth e ira c tiv ity . T h e a tte n \ue000
d a n c e
o f
som e
s p e c ia lis ts
in
X -ra y
a s tro n o m y
w as
p a r tic u la r ly u s e fu l. T h e y n o t o n ly d e s c rib e d th e ir d a ta
b u t a ls o
p re s e n te d
th e
o p p o r tu n itie s w h ic h
n o w
e x is t

( o r a re lik e ly to a ris e in th e n e a r fu tu re )fo rc o o rd in a te d o b s e r v a tio n s . It is o b v io u s , e s p e c ia lly w h e n d e a lin g w ith v a r ia b le

s o u re e s , th a t th e
v a lu e
o fb o th
o p tic a l a n d
X -ra y d a ta g re a tly in c re a s e s w h e n s im u lta n e o u s o b s e r \ue000
v a tio n s
e x is t in
th e

o th e r s p e c tra l ra n g e . In d e e d , th e to p ic d is c u s s e d w a s a ty p ic a l e x a m p leo fth e n e e d w h ic h o fte n a ris e s in m o d e rn a s tr o n o m y to g a th e r a n dc o o rd i\ue000 n a te in fo r m a tio n re s u ltin g fro m

q u ite d iffe r e n t c h a n n e ls s u c ha so p tic a l, ra d io a n d X -ra y a s tro n o m y . A s p e c ifie d is c u s s io n d e a lt w ith fu tu r e p la n sfo ro p tic a l o b s e rv a \ue000 tio n s

o f v a rio u s
in d iv id u a l X -ra y
s o u re e s
b o th
in
th e
northern and in the southern sky.
T h e a s s o c ia tio no fe o m p a c t X -ra y s o u re e s w ith e lo s e
b in a ry s y s te m s a n d
g lo b u la r c lu s te r s h a s u n d o u b te d ly
a d d e d
a
n e w
m o tiv e
fo rin te re s t in
th e
e la s s ie
a n d
a l re a d y fu n d a m e n ta l in v e s tig a tio no fth e s e o b je e ts .
1
~
D w a r l n o v a m o d e l, s c h e m a tlc .
In
o rd e r to
im p r o v e
th e
o b s e r v a tio na l b a s is ,N . V o g t
h a s
o b ta in e d
p h o to m e tric
a n d
s p e e tro s c o p ic
o b s e r\ue000
v a tio n s
o f s e v e ra l
d w a rf
n o v a e
s in e e
1 9 7 2 .
O c c a s io n \ue000
a lly . s im u lta n e o u s
o b s e rv a tio n s
w e re
m ade
w ith
u p
t o
th re e
te le s e o p e s
at La
S illa ,a sfo r in s ta n c e
i n
D eeem \ue000
b e r1 9 7 4 ,to g e th e r w ith
v is itin g
a s tro n o m e rs
R .
H \u00e4 fn e r
a n d
R .
S ehoem bs
fro m
M u n ie h ,
o r
in
A p ril
1 9 7 6
w ith
J .B re y s a e h e r (E S O ). T h e
w o r k e o n e e n tra te d
e s p e e ia lly
on the three starsV W
H y i,E X H y a a n d B V C e n , f o r w h ie h
lo n g
p h o to m e trie
a n d
s p e e tro s e o p ie
s erie s
w e re
o b \ue000
ta in e d w ith th e b e s t p o s s ib le tim e r e s o lu tio n . It is fa s e in a t\ue000
in g
t o
o b s e rv e
th e s e
s ta rs , a n d
e v e ry
o b s e r v in g
n ig h t
is
fu ll
o fs u r p r is e s : w ill
o u r
"frie n d "
o u tb u rs t to n ig h t?
W illh eo s e illa te ? W ill h e s h o w
a s tro n g
flic k e r in g ,o r is
h e" b o r in g ly "c o n s ta n t to n ig h t?
T h e
d a ta
of our
d w a rf
n o v a e
o b s e r v in g
p ro g ra m m e
a re
p a rtly
p u b lis h e d , b u t m o s t a re
s till b e in g
a n a ly s e d .
H o p e fu lly , th e y w ill h e lp
t o
answer som e
o fth e . a b o v e \ue000
m e n tio n e d
q u e s tio n s . H o w e v e r, th e y e e r ta in ly a ls o
p o s e
n e w
p r o b le m s ; e .g . w h e n w e d e te c te d inV W
Hyi a hum p
in
th e
Iig h t-e u rv e
w h ic h
re p e a ts
e v e ry
1 1 1
m in . d u r in g
o u tb u rs t, w h ile
its o rb ita l p e rio d
is
o n ly1 0 7
m in .! W h a t
is
th e
p h y s ie a l
m e a n in g
o fa n o th e r p e rio d , 4
per eent
lo n g e r
th a n
th e
o rb ita l?
A
n e w
fe a tu re -u n e x p e e te d ,
o b s e rv e d , n o t u n d e rs to o d . S e ie n e eislik e th e o ld
G re e k
le g e n d a r y s n a k e
H y d ra
w ith
h e r n in e
h e a d s .
11.y o u
e u t
o n e o ff, tw o n e w h e a d s g r o w .
P R O F IL E
O FA
S T A F F A S T R O N O M E R 'S
P R O G R A M M E :
D w a rf N o v a e
D r. N ik o la u s V o g t,E S O
s ta tt a s tro n o m e r in
C h ile ,
is a s p e c ia lis t in d w a r f n o v a e , a n d d u r in g
th e p a s t
years he has been
b u s y im p r o v in g
o u r k n o w le d g e
a b o u t th e s e
in te re s tin g
o b je c ts .
H e re
h e
r e v ie w s
h is p r o g r a m m e :
Dwarf novae
a re
s m a ll b ro th e rs
o fth e
X -ra y
b in a r ie s :
a n e x te n d e d
re d s ta r d e liv e rs g a s e o u s m a te ria l to w a rd s
th e
s e c o n d
c o m p o n e n t,
a
w h ite
d w a rf.
T h e

m a te ria l a rriv e s a t q u ite a h ig h v e lo c ity , a c c e le r a te d b y th e g ra v \ue000 i t y

o fth e
w h ite
d w a rf,
a n d
d o e s
n o r m a lly
n o t
h it th e
s u rfa c e
o fth e
w h ite
d w a rf
im m e d ia te ly ,
b u t
fo rm s
a n
a c c re tio n
d is c
o f
h o t
g a s
w h ic h
s u rro u n d s
th e
w h ite
d w a rf. T h is
d is c
a n d
e s p e c ia lly
i t s
"h o ts p o t"-L e .
th e
p la c e
w h e re
th e
g a s
s tre a m
fro m
th e
re d
com ponent
fa lls o n to th ed is c -a reth e m o s t p r o m in e n t lig h t s o u rc e s
o fth e
e n tire
s y s te m . T h is
m o d e l r e s e m b le s
th a t o f th e
X -ra y b in a rie s ,b u tth e
m asses and
d im e n s io n s o f d w a r f
n o v a e a re m u c h s m a lle r, a b o u t o n e s o la r m a s sfo re a e h
c o m p o n e n t.
N e v e rth e le s s ,
s o ft
X -ra y s
w e re
re e e n tly
d e te c te d
in o n eo fth e
nearest dw arf novae,S S
C yg.
M o re th a n tw e n ty y e a rs a g o , K ra ft d e te e te d th e b in a ry
n a tu reo fdwarf novae on
a c e o u n t o f e c lip s e s a n d
o th e r
p e r io d ic v a ria tio n s in th e
lig h t-c u rv e a n d
r a d ia l v e lo c ity .
A nd
i t
i s
m o re
th a n
1 0 0
y e a rs
a g o
th a t
th e
firs t
s ta r
o fth is
c la s s
w as
d e te e te d , w ith
it s
e h a ra e te ris tie s
a n d
s p e c ta c u la r
b e h a v io u r :
a
n o r m a lly
v e ry
fa in t
s ta r
b rig h te n s
fo r a fe w
d a y s ,2 -Sm
a b o v e
it s
n o r m a l m a g n i\ue000
tu d e .
T h e s e
o u tb u rs ts
o e c u r
a t
irre g u la r
in te r v a ls
b e \ue000
tw e e n
te n
days and
s e v e ra l m o n th s . T h e
e ru p tiv e
b e h a \ue000
v io u r
r e s e m b le s
th a t
o f
th e
n o v a e ,
b u t
th e
o u tb u rs t
a m p litu d e s a re s m a lle r, th u s th e n a m e
"d w a rfn o v a ".
W ith
th e s e
s h o rt n o te s
w e
le a v e
th e
fie ld
o f e e rta in
k n o w le d g e .W e
d o
not know
a s y e t w h ie h
p h y s ie a l p r o \ue000
c e s s e s
ru le
th e
o b s e rv e d
p ro p e rtie s . E v e n
th e
lo e a tio n
a n d
o r ig in
o f
th e
s p e c ta c u la r
o u tb u rs t
is
s till
e o n tro \ue000
v e r s ia l:isth e
w h ite
d w a r f r e s p o n s ib le , d u e
t o
a
h y d ro \ue000
g e n -b u rn in g
b u rs t a fte r a e e re tio n
o f h y d ro g e n -rie h
g a s
o n to
it s
s u rfa c e ?
O r
is
i t
th e
d is c ,
o r
e v e n
th e
re d
c o m p o n e n t th a t' c re a te s th e o u tb u rs t?
D o u b ts a ls o
a ris e
i fo n e
trie s
t o
e x p la in
th e
o s c illa tio n s
w ith
1 S -3 0
s e e .
p e r io d w h ic h w e re o b s e rv e d in s o m e o f th e d w a r f n o v a e .
T h is
c o u ld
b e
w h ite -d w a rf
p u ls a tio n s .
b u t
th e y
e o u ld
a ls o
o rig in a te
in
th e
o rb ita l
m o tio n
o f
th e
in n e r m o s t
p a rtso fth ed is c o
re d
s ta r
d ire c tio n
o f
o rb ita l
m o tio n
g a s
s tr e a m
~
~
~
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....
~
1
.
,
a c c re tio n
~
'lo j'
.
.
,
~
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-
-
:
-
g
a
s
d is c
,~
~
&
[
h o l
'p o l
d ',,,,, o "
0 1
o rb ita l
m o tio n
i1 IIlIIl
I
.11IIII!
I "
:
1II
IIH IIII:H ili
11I
1 .
;:d t'
I
f , f .
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1 II
1111'11'11I:Ir!1I
I / I
,
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Ji
\u2022
I
I!
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,
I
H \u00df
H
~
S p e c tro g ra m
0 1
th e
d w a rfn o v a
S V
C e n , ta k e n
b y
J .S re y s a c h e r
o n
A p ril
4 ,
1 9 7 6
w ilh
th e
E c h e le c
s p e c tro g ra p h .
D is p e r s io n
1 2 4
A /m m ,
e x p o s u re
5 0
m in . T h e
h y d J o g e n
Iin e s
H r1
a n d
H y
a re
v is ib le
in
e m is s io n
a n d
s h o w
a
d o u b le
s tru c tu re . T h is
s tru c \ue000
tu re
i s
v a r ia b le
in
a
tim e
s c a le
o fa
fe w
h o u rs . T h e
e m is s io n
Iin e s
o rig in a te
in
th e
d is c ,
w h ile
th e
n a rro w
a b s o rp tio n
lin e s
c o rre s p o n d
t o
th e
re d
s te lla r c o m p a n io n .
2
T h e " E c h e le c " -
A
N ew
S p e c tro g ra p h fo r E S O
E S O
s ta tt
a s tro n o m e r
D r.
J .
B re y s a e h e r
re p o rts
fro m
La S illa:
Tw o
s im ila r
m o d e ls
o f
th e
E e h e le e
s p e e tro g ra p h ,
d e s ig n e d
b y
A .
B a ra n n e
fo r
th e
e o u d a
fo e u s
o f
th e
.
1 .5 2 m
te le s e o p e , e x is t a t p re s e n t.
O n e , th e
p ro to ty p e ,
i sw o rk in g
a t th e
O b s e rv a to ire
d e
H a u te -P ro v e n e e
a n d
th e
s e e o n d
w as
re e e n tly
in s ta lle d
o n
L a
S illa .
T h e
in s tru m e n t
is
eom posed
o f
th re e
in d e p e n d e n t
u n its
e o n n e e te d
b y
tw o
Iig h t- p r o o f tu n n e ls , th e
d is ta n e e
b e \ue000
tw e e n
th e
e x tre m e
u n its
b e in g
a b o u t
s e v e n
m e tre s .
I t
is p o s itio n e d
in th e e a s t-w e s t d ire e tio n , o n th e e o n e re te
o fth e
te le s e o p e
p illa r in
th e
e o u d e
ro o m . T h e
e e n tra l
u n it c a n
b e
re m o v e d
v e ry e a s ily , th u s p e r m ittin g
a ra p id
e x c h a n g e w ith th e o th e r b ig c o u d e s p e c tro g ra p h .
T h e
d e te c to r
n o r m a lly
u s e d
w ith
th e
E c h e le c
is
th e
L a lle m a n d -D u e h e s n e ' "c a m e ra
e le c tro n iq u e " ,
b u t
th e
s p e c tro g ra p h
c a n
a ls o
b e
o p e ra te d
w ith
a n
im a g e \ue000
tu b e
a n d
d ire c t
p h o to g ra p h y .
T h e
e le c tro n o g ra p h ic
c a m e ra
is
e le c tr o s ta tic a lly
fo c u s e d ,
th e
a c c e le r a tin g
p o te n tia l is2 5
k ilo v o lts a n d
S -1 1 -ty p e
p h o to c a th o d e so f
3 0
m m
d ia m e te r a re
u s e d
w ith
it. T h e
m a g a z in e
h o ld s
tw e n ty
p la te s .
T h e
c a m e ra
g iv e s
a
m a g n ific a tio n
o f
a b o u t0 .6 . A
s p e c ia l la b o ra to ry w a s
c o n s tru c te d
o n
th e
s e c o n d
flo o r
o f
th e
1 .5
m
te le s e o p e
b u ild in g
fo r
th e
p re p a ra tio n
o fth e
e q u ip m e n t w h ic h
ta k e s a b o u t tw e n ty
h o u rs a n d d e m a n d s g re a t c a re .
In
th e
" e c h e lle
m o d e " ,L e . w ith
tw o
c ro s s e d
g ra tin g s ,
th e d is p e r s io n
in th e b lu e
is4 .5A /m m .T h e
m ean
e x p o \ue000
sure tim e
fo ra s ta ro f m a g n itu d e
B
=
1 0is a b o u t 2h3 0
T h eE S O
E c h e le c s p e c tro g ra p h .
E R R A T U M
D ue
t o
a n
e rro r
d is c o v e r e d
o n ly
in
th e
p rin tin g -p re s s ,
n e a rly
th e
w h o le
e d itio n
0 1
th e
M a rc h
H i7 6
is s u e
0 1
th e
"M e s s e n g e r"h a s b e e n p rin te d a s N o .1 .
T h re e
n u m b e rs
0 1
th e
"M e s s e n g e r"
w e re
a lre a d y
p u b \ue000
lis h e d
in
1 9 7 4
a n d
1 9 7 5 ,a n d
th e
la s t is s u e , th c r e lo r e , w a s
N o.
4 .
W e
a p o lo g iz e
lo r
th is
m is lo r tu n e
a n d
in lo r m
th e
re a d e rs
th a t
N os.
1 ,
2
a n d
3 ,
w h ic h
h a d
a
m o re
lim ite d
d is tr ib u tio n , a re n o
lo n g e r a v a ila b le .
T h e
e d ito rs
T h e
"c a m e ra
e le c tr o n iq u e "
d u rin g
i t s
p re p a ra tio n
i n
th e
la b o ra to ry .
for a
s p e c tru m
w id e n e d
t o
0 .2 0
m m . The
s p e c tro g ra p h
!ila y a ls o
b e
u s e d
in
ac
o
n
v
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n
t
i
o
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in g th e tr a n s m is s io n g r a tin g
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e x c h a n g in g th e e c h e lle g ra tin g w ith a fir s t- o r d e r g ra tin g . T h e p re s e n tly a v a ila b le firs t-o rd e r g ra tin g

g iv e s a d is p e r s io n
o f7 4A /m m
i n
th e
b lu e
at a
c a th o d e
o fth e
c a m e ra . T h e
m ean
e x p o s u re
tim e
fo r a s ta r o f m a g n itu d e
B
=
1 4 is o n e
h o u r.
. D u rin g
t l l e
p a s t
s ix
m o n th s ,
th e
E e t)e le c
h a s
b e e n
u s e d
fre q u e n tly .
V a rio u s
p ro g ra m m e s
w e re
c a rrie d
out by
v is itin g
a n d
s ta U
a s tro n o m e rs :
ip e n tific a tio n
o f
X -ra y s o u rc e s , a s tu d yo fW o lf-R a y e t s ta rs in
th e M a g e l\ue000
la n ic
C lo u d s ,
h ig h - d is p e r s io n
o b s e rv a tio n s
o f
in te r\ue000
s te lla r c a lc iu m
lin e s , d e te r m in a tio n
o f s te lla r ro ta tio n . in
o p e n
c lu s te rs a n d
h ig h -tim e
r e s o lu tio n
s p e c tro s c o p yo f
e ru p tiv e
v a r ia b le s . T h e
firs t re s u lts
w ill s o o n
a p p e a r in
p rin t.
O p tic a l Id e n tific a tio no f a G a la c tic
X -rayS o u rc e
D r.H . M a u d e r fro m
th e
U n iv e rs ity O b s e rv a to ry
in
T \u00fc b in g e n , F e d e ra l R e p u b lic

o fG e rm a n y , re c e n tly id e n tifie d a s o u th e r n X -ra y s o u r c e o p tic a lly . T h is .is th e

s e c o n d
X -ra y
s O u rc e
id e n tifie d
w ith
a n
E S O
te le s c o p e
o n
L a
S illa .
T h e
firs t,
C en
X -3 ,
w as
fo u n d
b yD r.W .K rz e m in s k y fro m
th e W a rs a w
U n i\ue000
v e rs ity
O b s e rv a to ry ,
u s in g
th e
E S O
1
m
p h o to \ue000
m e trie
te le s c o p e
in
M a y - A u g u s t1 9 7 3 . D r. M a u d e r
re p o rts :
It is
o fg re a t in te re s t to
id e n lify
g a la c tic X -ra y
s o u rc e s
w ith
o p tic a l s ta rs , s in c e
it h a s tu rn e d
o u t th a t th e
X -ra y
e m is s io n
in
th e s e
o b je c ts
is
d u e
t o
a c c re tio n
o f m a tte r
o n to c o m p a c t, c o lla p s e d s ta rs in
b in a r y 's y s te m s . S tu d y \ue000
in g
th e
n o rm a l
o p tic a l
c o m p o n e n ts
in
th o s e
s y s te m s
g iv e s m u c h
in fo rm a tio n
o n,th e
n a tu reo f c o m p a c t s ta rs ;
in
som e
c a s e s
i t
h a s
b e e n
p o s s ib le
t o
s h o w
th a t
th e
c o m p a c t c o m p o n e n t m u s t b e a n e u tro n s ta r; o n e s y s te m
m ay
e v e n
c o n ta in
a
b la c k
h o le .
U n til
now ,
o n ly ' e ig h t
b in a ry
X -ra y
s o u rc e s
h a v e
b e e n
d e fin ite ly
id e n tifie d
w ith
o p tic a l
s ta rs ,
w h ic h
c a n
th e re fo re
b e
s tu d ie d
in3

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