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messenger-no10

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on Apr 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

N o.1 O -S e p te m b e r1 9 7 7
3.6 m
T e le s c o p e R e c e iv e s F irs t V is itin g A s tr o n o m e r s
T h e 3 .6 m
te le s c o p eisn o w

re a d yt o re c e iv eth efirs tv is itin ga s tro n o m e rs .F o rm osta s tro n o m e rs in E u ro p e , th isw i11 b eth efirs ttim eth e y h a v e a c c e s st o a la r g ete le s c o p e a n d it isth e re fo reo fsom ein te re s tt o le a r nh o w E u ro p e a n

a s tro n o m e rse x p e c tt o
m ake useo fth e irn e w
in s tru m e n t.
P re lim in a ryin fo rm a tio nis a v a ila b lefro m th ep ro g ra m m e
p ro p o s a ls
th a t
w e re
r e c e iv e d
b y
th e
O b s e r v in g
P ro \ue000
g ra m m e s
C o m m itte e
b y
A p ril
1 5 ,
1 9 7 7 ,
s o lic itin g
o b \ue000
s e r v in g
tim e
d u rin g
p e rio d
2 0 ,fro m
O c to b e r1 ,1 9 7 7
t o
A p ril1 ,1 9 7 8 .
A
to ta lo f4 9
a p p lic a n ts
s u b m itte d
5 4
p ro g ra m m e s ,o f
w h ic h2 6c o u ldb ea c c e p te dw ith in th etim e a v a ila b le (s e e
p .9 ). T h e s ep ro g ra m m e s c a n b ed iv id e d a sfo llo w s(n u m b e r
o fa c c e p te d
p ro g ra m m e sin
p a re n th e s e s ):
1
(1 )
S o la rs y s te m
1 6
(7 )
M il k y
W ay
(a m o n g
th e s e
9
fo rs ta rs ,
4
fo r
s ta r
c lu s te rs ,
2
fo r
in te r s te lla r
m a tte r,
1
fo r
g a la c tic
s tru c tu re )
1 1 .5 (3 )
M a g e lla n icC lo u d s
1
(1 )
S c u lp to rd w a rfg a la x y
2 1
(1 2 )
O th e rg a la x ie s
3 .5 (2 )
Q u a s a rs .
T h e la c ko fla r g e te le s c o p e s inE u ro p e h a stra d itio n a lly
re s tric te d
E u ro p e a n
in v e s tig a tio n so fd is ta n to b je c tslik e
q u a s a rs a n d
g a la x ie s ,b u t th e s e
fig u re sc le a r lys h o w
th a t
th ein te re s t ind o in ge x tr a g a la c tic re s e a rc hw ith th e 3 .6 m
te le s c o p e
is
s tro n g
am ong
E u ro p e a n
a s tro n o m e rs .T h e
q u a n tita tiv e
b a la n c e
b e tw e e n
g a la c tic
a n d
e x tra g a la c tic
p ro p o s a lsisw o rthn o tic in g a sw e il a s t h ec o n tin u a tio no f
re s e a rc h
i n
th e
M a g e lla n icC lo u d s , s in c e
lo n g
u n d e rw a y
w ith
th e
E S O
1m , 1 .5 2 m
a n d
S c h m id tte le s c o p e s .
T h e
a c c e p te d
p ro g ra m m e ss p a n
aw id e
ra n g e
o fs u b \ue000
je c ts ,fro m
"T h ela p e tu se c lip s eo nJ a n u a ry8 ,1 9 7 8 "(D r.A .
B r a h ic , P a ris ) to"S p e c tro s c o p yo fv a r ia b leq u a s a rs " (D r. J .
P .S w in g s , L ie g e ). Ina d d itio nt oth e s ta n d a rd
E S O
e q u ip \ue000
m entfo rp h o to m e trya n ds p e c tro s c o p y , s p e c ia le q u ip m e n t
w illb e u s e d b y D rs .Y .G e o r g e lin a n dG .C o m te ( M a r s e ille )
fo r" H
11re g io n sa n dk in e m a tic so fs o u th e rng a la x ie s " a n d
D rs.G .S c h u ltza n d
E .
K re y s a
(B o n n )fo r" S u b m illim e tre
a n d
IR
in v e s tig a tio n so fra d io
s o u re e s ".
E S O 's F ifte e n th A n n iv e rs a ry (1 9 6 2 -1 9 7 7 )
O n
O c to b e r5 ,1 9 7 7 ,E S O
c e le b r a te s itsfifte e n th

a n n i\ue000 v e rs a ry .A sth e firs tin te rn a tio n a lo r g a n iz a tio nfo ra s tro \ue000 nom yin E u r o p e , E S O

w asb o rn

inO c to b e r 1 9 6 2w hen re p re s e n ta tiv e so f fiv eo f th e p r e s e n t s ixm em ber s ta te s s ig n e d

th e
E S O
C o n v e n tio n
i n
P a ris .
R a tific a tio n
fo l\ue000
lo w e d a y e a rla te r a n d th e L a S illa s ite w a sc h o s e n in 1 9 6 4
w h e re
a s tro n o m ic a lo b s e rv a tio n ss ta rte d
in
1 9 6 8w ith
the 1 m
p h o to m e triete le s c o p e .E ig h to th e r te le s c o p e s
have been
a d d e d
s in c e .
.
T h ec re a tio no fE S O

h a s h a d a la r g eim p a c to nE u ro \ue000 p e a na s tro n o m y a n dth ein flu e n c eo fth eo r g a n iz a tio n is in c r e a s in g lyb e in gfe it-a ls o

b e y o n d th eb o u n d a r ie so f
th e
m em bers ta te s .
P R O F IL E
O F A V IS IT O R 'S
P R O G R A M M E :
T h e B r ig h t C lo u d B
inS a g itta riu s
Ad e ta ile ds tu d yo f s ta rs in th ed ir e c tio no f th e c e n tre
o ft h eM ilk y W a y isu n d e rw a ya t t h e O b s e r v a t o i r e d e
L y o n
in
F ra n c eb y D r.A . T e rz a n

a n dh is c o lla b o r a - to rs .Im p o rta n tm a te r ia l h a s b e e no b ta in e d w ith th E E S O

te le s c o p e s
d u rin g
th e
p a s ty e a rs .
D r.
T e rz a n
o u tlin e sh isp ro g ra m m e :
Ap h o to m e tries tu d y in R(A e ft-
6 4 0 0A ) a n d
IR
(A e ft-
8 1 0 0
A )o fc e rta inr e g io n s in th eb rig h ts te lla rc lo u d B inS a g itta \ue000
riu s
has been
u n d e rta k e n
b y th e
L y o n
O b s e rv a to rys in c e1
1 9 5 9 .
P h o to g ra p h ie
o b s e rv a tio n s
a t
O b s e rv a to ire
d e
H a u te -P ro v e n c e (O H P )w ithth e8 0c m
(f/6 ,N e w to nfo c u s )
and 193 cm
(f/5 ,N e w to n
fo c u s )te le s c o p e sh a v ee n a b le d
u st od is c o v e r1 1
s te lla rc lu s te rso fw hic h
8 are
g lo b u la r
as w eil as a very largenum bero fv a r ia b le starsfo rw h ic h a
p h o to m e trie
s tu d y isn o w
b e in gc a rrie d
o u t.
Alo n gse rie so fB a n d

Ro b s e rv a tio n so f th e s a m efie ld s w e reo b ta in e d in 1 9 6 8 b y m e a n so f th e4 8 -in c hS c h m id tte \ue000 le s c o p eo n

M ountP a lo m a r.M anyo f th e s e
p h o to g ra p h ie
p la te s h a v en o t y e t b e e n s tu d ie d , b e c a u s eu n til r e c e n tlyth e
L y o n
O b s e rv a to ry
d id
n o th a v e
a
b lin k
c o m p a ra to rth a t
c o u ld
a c c o m m o d a te
p la te sla rg e rth a n
25 x 25 cm .H ow \ue000
e v e r, an e w
b lin k
c o m p a ra to rh a s
n o w
b e e n
b u iltw h ic h
p e rm its
m e a s u re m e n ts
o n
p la te s
u p
t o
3 0
x
3 0
c m
a n d
d e te c tio no fm a g n itu d ev a r ia tio n so fle s sth a n0 ':'2 . T h e (X ,
Y )p o s itio no fas ta r is m e a s u r e d
in a no rth o g o n a l s y s te m
w ith
a rb itra ryo rig o
(X e,Y e).

In 1 9 7 2 w es ta rte da n o th e r s e r ie so fp h o to g ra p h ieo b s e r\ue000 v a tio n sw ithanim a g e -tu b ec a m e ra(IT I 4708, S20e x te n d \ue000 e d

re d
p h o to c a th o d e )a tth ef/1 5
C a s s e g r a info c u so f th e
E S O 1 .5 2 m te le s c o p e . T h e a im
w ast ofin d a n dt os tu d y th e
R R
L y r-ty p e
v a r ia b le s
in
a
num bero fg lo b u la rc lu s te rs
w h ic h
h a d
a lr e a d y b e e n
o b s e rv e d a t O H P .
N ow ,w ithth eim p ro v e db lin kc o m p a ra to rand afu llyd i\ue000
g itiz e d Irisp h o to m e te r ( A s k a n ia ,a u to m a tie ir is ) a v a ila b le , a
g ro u po fa s tro n o m e rsc o n s is tin g o fs c ie n tis tsfro m
th e In \ue000
s titu td 'A s tr o p h y s iq u ein P a r is a n d th e L y o nO b s e rv a to ry is
p r o p o s in gt op e rfo rm
ad e ta ile dp h o to m e tries tu d yo f th e
b rig h tc lo u d
B
i n
S a g itta riu s ,w ith in
th e a re a :
1 7
h
~
R A
~
1 8
h
a n d
-2 4 \u00b0~
O e c l.~
-3 3 \u00b0,
c e n tre da p p r o x im a te lyo nth es ta r 4 5 O p h(R A
=
1 7h
2 6
m
;
O e c l.=
-2 9 \u00b05 9 ') . T h e
p r in c ip a la im s a re :
(1 )
th e
s tu d yo fknow n
v a r ia b le s in
th a tre g io n ,
(2 )
th ed e te c tio n
o fn e w
v a ria b le s ta rs b y
-
th e
n e w
b lin kc o m p a ra to ra n d
-
p h o to e le c tricp h o to m e try ,inp a r tic u la rt o fin d th e
bS c u tiv a r ia b le s ,
(3 )
th em e a s u re m e n to fp a rtic u la rly re d s ta rs ,e ith e rin \ue000
tr in s ic a llyre d
o rre d d e n e d
b yin te r s te lla ra b s o rp tio n ,
(4 )
th ee s tim a teo f th e
in te r s te lla ra b s o rp tio n
in th ed i\ue000
re c tio n
o fth e
g a la c ticc e n tre ,
(5 )
th e
s e a rc h
fo ra
p o s s ib le
c o rre la tio n
b e tw e e n
th e
ty p e a n d th e s p e c tra ld is tr ib u tio no fth eid e n tifie d v a r ia b le
s ta rs ,
(6 )
th ed e te rm in a tio no fth ed is ta n c e st o th en u m e ro u s
g lo b u la rc lu s te rs
w h ic h
a re
e ith e rs itu a te d
o rp ro je c te d
in toth isd ir e c tio n .
T h e
p h o to g ra p h ie
o b s e rv a tio n s
com m enced
i n
J une
1 9 7 6w ithth e E S O
S c h m id tte le s c o p e . H .-E .S c h u s te r a n d
h isc o lla b o ra to rshave alreadyo b ta in e d2 1
p la te s inB a n d

Ro fe x c e lle n tp h o to m e trie q u a lity ,m o s tlyu n d e rg o o d s e e \ue000 in gc o n d itio n s .T h e yc o v e r a fie ldo fa b o u t 1 0 \u00b0 s q u a re ,c e n \ue000 tre do n4 5 O p h . E a c h fie ld h a s b e e np h o to g ra p h e d a t le a s t tw ic ew ithth efo llo w in ge x p o s u re s :B (lIa-O

+
G G385) 20
and 40m in u te s ;R (1 0 3 a -E
+
R G630) 30 and 60m in u te s .
Ap re lim in a rys tu d yo fsom eo f th e s e p la te s w a sc a rrie d
o u tin J a n u a ry 1 9 7 7w ithth eb lin kc o m p a ra to r a t th e S k y A t\ue000
la s
L a b o ra to ry
in
G eneva
a n d
som e
v a r ia b le
s ta rs
w e re
fo u n d
a ro u n d
th e
g lo b u la rc lu s te rT e rz a n
2 .W e
a re
n o w
c o n tin u in g
th e
m e a s u re m e n ts
o fth e
e n tire

s e to f p la te s a n do fth e 1 9 6 8P a lo m a r p la te s . T h e r e s u lts w ill b ein c lu d e d in afo rth c o m in g

p u b lic a tio n .
In
p a ra lle l toth isw o rk w ee x p e c t to :
-
c o m p le m e n tth ep h o to g ra p h iep la te sw ithe x p o s u re s
in U a n dV , inc o lla b o r a tio nw ith H .-E . S c h u s te r , a n d
-

e s ta b lis hp h o to m e tries e q u e n c e sin U B V R Iw ith s ta rs in th e s k y a re au n d e rs tu d y . T h e s es e q u e n c e ss h o u ld c o v e ram a g n itu d e in te rv a lfro m

V=
8 .0t o V=
1 7 .0 o r,
i fp o s s ib le ,p re fe ra b ly fa in te r . W ee x p e c tt o
u s e th e
E S O 5 0 c m , 1 m a n d 3 .6 m te le s c o p e sfo rth isp u rp o s e .
A lth o u g h
a
la rg e
num bero fo b s e rv a tio n a l
d a ta

h a v e b e e ng a th e re dd u rin gth e p a s t 1 8 y e a rs a t O H P a n d E S O( a to ta lo fm oreth a n2 ,0 0 0 p la te s ),th e yo n lyc o v e r r e la tiv e ly s m a llfie ld s(6 0 x 6 0a rc m in u te s a t O H P a n d 3a rc m in u te s

c ir c u la ra t E S O ). It isth e re fo reo b v io u sth a t g e n e ra lc o n \ue000 c lu s io n sc o n c e rn in gth es tru c tu reo f th eM ilk y W a y in th e d ir e c tio no fth ec e n tre c a no n ly b e m a d ea fte r a ne x te n d e d s tu d yo ft h eo b s e rv a tio n sw h ic h h a v e b e e np ro p o s e d in t h e p re s e n tp ro g ra m m e .

T h e E x c itin g S ta r o f P la n e ta r y N e b u la N G C 3 1 3 2
F ig . 1 . -
U ltr a v io le tp h o too fN G C3 1 3 2 ,o b ta in e d on Feb.14, 1977
a tth e3 .6m
te le s c o p e (p la te n o .3 9 3 ). E x p o s u re8 m in u te s , IIIa -J+
U G
1 .T h ed ia m e te ro f th e
n e b u la isa b o u to n e a r c m in u te .
2
T h ete rm
"P la n e ta ryN e b u la "w asc o in e dw hen
1 8 th -c e n \ue000
tu rya s tro n o m e rsd is c o v e r e dc e le s tia lo b je c ts th a tlo o k e d
s im ila rt oth e s o la r-s y s te m
p la n e ts inth e irs m a ll-a p e rtu re
te le s c o p e s . W e
n o w
k n o w
th a tth e s e
n e b u la e
h a v e

th e ir o r ig inins te lla ro u tb u rs ts( e x p lo s io n s )d u rin gw h ic h a s ta r th ro w saw ayc o n s e c u tiv es h e llso fm a tte rw h ic ha fte rw a rd s

e x p a n da ro u n dth ec e n tra l s ta r.S p e c tro s c o p ic a n a ly s e so f th en e b u la ein d ic a teth a t th e s e s ta rs a re in te n s es o u rc e so f u ltr a v io le tra d ia tio n

th a te x c iteth ea to m s in th e

n e b u la e . T h isisa lm o s t a lw a y sc o n firm e dw hend ire c ts p e c tro s c o p ic o b s e rv a tio n sa re m a d eo f th e s ta rs s itu a te d a tth e c e n tre s

o fth e
p la n e ta ryn e b u la e :th e y a ree x c e e d in g ly h o t, o fte n
th es u rfa c ete m p e ra tu re
iso fth eo rd e r o f1 0 0 , 0 0 0 \u00b0K .
A
d ile m m a
h a s e x is te d
fo rsom e
tim e
in
th e

p la n e ta ry n e b u laN G C 3 1 3 2 in t h ec o n s te lla tio nP ic to r(P a in te r's e a \ue000 s e i) a tR A

=
6h 0 5
m
;O e c i.=

--6 0 \u00b0. W h e r e a s t h en e b u lain d i\ue000 c a te s ate m p e ra tu reo fa b o u t 1 0 0 ,0 0 0 d e g re e so fth e c e n tra l s ta r,

H O8 7 8 9 2 ,th is
isn o t o b s e r v e d .A s
a
m a tte ro ffa c t,
H O8 7 8 9 2 is a n A - t y p es ta rw h ic hc e r ta in ly isn o th o tte rth a n
1 0 ,0 0 0t o
1 2 , 0 0 0 \u00b0K .
R ecento b s e rv a tio n sb yO r.L .K o h o u te ko f th eH a m b u rg
O b s e r v a t o r y , inc o lla b o r a tio nw ithO r.S . L a u s t s e no f E S O ,

a p p e a rt os o lv eth isp ro b le m .A s e rie so fs h o rte x p o s u re s w ithth e E S O 3 .6 mte le s c o p e h a v e re v e a le dth a t th e c e n tra l s ta ro fN G C 3 1 3 2 is infa c t ad o u b le s ta ra n dth a t th efa in t c o m p a n io nina illik e lih o o d h a sth e n e c e s s a r yc h a ra c te ris \ue000 tic st oe x c iteth e

n e b u la . It h a s a v is u a l,a p p a re n tm a g n i\ue000 tu d eo fa b o u t1 6 .5 a n d alu m in o s ity 1 1 0tim e sth a t o fth e S u n . T h e s t a r ise x tre m e lyb lu e . It isth e re fo re as u b lu m i\ue000 n o u s ,b lu e s ta r, as te lla r ty p eth a t isty p ic a lfo r th e c e n tra l s ta ro fa n

e v o lv e d
p la n e ta ryn e b u la .
D rs.
K o h o u te k
a n d
L a u s ts e n
h a v e
s u b m itte d
th e ird e \ue000
ta ile d
re s u ltst o th ejo u rn a lA s tro n o m ya n dA s tro p h y s ic s .
F ig .2 . -
S h o rt-e x p o s u reim a g e so ( v is u a lb in a ryH O
8 7 8 9 2 .5 , 1 0
a n d2 0s e c o n d s o n IIla -J+U G
1 .T h ed is ta n c e b e tw e e n th e c e n tre s
o (t h etw oc o m p o n e n ts is
1 .6 5a rc s e c o n d .
3 .6
m
T e le s c o p e : E x c e lle n t O p tic a l Q u a lity
T h ep r e lim in a r y te s tso f th eo p tie a lq u a lityo f th e3 .6mp rim ea n d C a s s e g ra in fo e io p tie s h a v en o w b e e n a n a \ue000
Iy z e d . T h e ys h o wth a t th e la r g e E S O
te le s e o p e iso p tie a llyn e a rlyp e rfe e ta n dth a t th e d e s ig ns p e e ifie a tio n s
h a v e b e e n m e t,p ro b a b ly e v e ns ig n ifie a n tly s u rp a s s e d . T h e te s ts w e ree a rrie do u tb y th e E S O

O p tie s S e e tio n (inp a rtie u la rD a n ie l E n a rd , F ra n e is F ra n z a , M a u rie e L e L u y e r, P a trie kM o n n e ra ta n dR aym ond W ils o n )a n d th ep re s e n tre p o rt w a se o m p ile db y th e le a d e r, D r.R .N .

W ils o n :
P rim e
F o c u s

InT h eM essengerN o . 7 ab rie fs u m m a ry w a s g iv e no f th e a lig n m e n ta n d te s to f th ep rim efo c u so p tic so f th e 3 .6 m te \ue000 le s c o p e

(p rim e
m irro rw ith
G a s c o ig n e
p la te
c o rre c to rs ).
T h e
p re lim in a rya n a ly s iso f th e

te s t re s u lts ( m a in lycom \ue000 p u te ra n a ly s iso f H a r tm a n n te s t p la te s ) w a s b a s e do n m e a \ue000 s u re m e n ts

w ith
th e
m o d ifie d
B lin k
M ic ro s c o p e
w hose
m e a s u r in g
p r e c is io n
is
in s u ffic ie n t
fo r
e s ta b lis h in g
th e
fo rm a le n e rg yc o n c e n tra tio n ,a lth o u g ha d e q u a tefo rp ro v id \ue000
in g
in fo rm a tio n
o n
th e
im p o rta n t,
lo w
s p a tia lfre q u e n c y
e rro rr e s id u a ls
s u c h
a sth ird -o rd e rs p h e r ic a l a b e rra tio n ,
com aa n da s tig m a tis m .In s p iteo f th e s e
lim ita tio n s ,th e re
w as
c le a r
e v id e n c e
th a t
th e
s p e c ific a tio n
(7 5%
o fth e
g e o m e tric a l
e n e rg y
t o
b e
w ith in
a
c ir c le
o f0 .4
a rc s e c
d ia m e te r) h a d
b e e n
m e t, p e r h a p s b y a c le a rm a rg in .
S in c eth isre p o rt,a b o u t5 0H a rtm a n n p la te sfo rth ep rim e
fo c u s
h a v e
b e e n
m e a s u re d
o n
th e
" G a la x y "
m e a s u r in g
m a c h in e
a tH e rs tm o n c e u x
in
E n g la n d ." G a la x y "
h a s th e
n e c e s s a rym e a s u r in gp r e c is io no fth eo rd e ro f1
~
.

W ec o n \ue000 s id e rth a te rro rsd u et oth ep h o to g ra p h icp r o c e s s in gc o n \ue000 d itio n s(th ed a rk -ro o m s w e ren o tfin is h e d a tth a t tim e ) a n d n o n -ra n d o m

(d o m e )
tu rb u le n c e
g iv in g
a s y m m e trie s
in
som e
s p o ts
a re
p ro b a b ly
m ore
s e rio u s
s o u rc e s
o fe rro r
th a n
r e s id u a lm e a s u r in ge rro rso n
"G a la x y ".

T h ec o m p u te r a n a ly s iso f th e" G a la x y " m e a s u r e m e n ts is n o wa lm o s tc o m p le tea n d itis h o p e dt op ro d u c e a fin a l re \ue000 p o rto nth ep rim efo c u s(w ithG a s c o ig n e p la te s )w ith in th e n e x tfe w w e e k s . H o w e v e r, itis a lre a d yfu llyc o n firm e dth a t th es p e c ific a tio n h a s b e e nm etw ith8 0%

o fth eg e o m e tri\ue000
c a le n e rg yw ith in
0 .4 2
a rc s e cfo r th e
z e n ith
p o s itio n
a n d
o n lym in o rv a r ia tio n sfo rth e

in c lin e dte le s c o p e (b e tw e e n 0 .4 6 a r c s e cs o u th w a rd st o0 .3 5 a rc s e c e a s tw a rd s ). T h e s e fig u re sc o rre s p o n d ,o fc o u rs e ,t o th e s ta te o fth e te le s c o p e a fte r th e re m o v a lo fth e v e ry s m a lld e c e n trin gcom ae rro r p r e s e n ta fte r th ea lig n m e n t. W e b e lie v eth a t e v e nth ise x \ue000 c e lle n tr e s u lti sto o

p e s s im is tic ;fo rth e
r e s id u a la s tig m a \ue000
tis m

isp ro b a b ly la r g e lyd u et odom etu rb u le n c e .F u rth e r\ue000 m o re , th e s m a ll re s id u a l ins p h e r ic a la b e rra tio n c a n b e re \ue000 m oved

by afu rth e ra x ia la d ju s tm e n to f th ec o rre c to r a n d a n yg e n u in ere s id u a la s tig m a tic e ffe c ts p re s e n t inth ep ri\ue000 m a ry c a n

b e
re m o v e d
b y a s m a lla d ju s tm e n to f th e
a x ia l
s u p p o rts y s te m .
O urc a lc u la tio n ss h o wth a tre m o v a lo fth ird -o rd e ra s tig \ue000
m a tis m
a lo n ew o u ld g iv e ag e o m e tric a le n e rg yc o n c e n tra -
tio no f8 0%
w ith in0 .3 5 a rc s e c d ia m e te r,w h ilefu rth e r re \ue000
m ovalo fth e
re s id u a l s p h e ric a la b e rra tio n
a n d
tria n g u la r
a s tig m a tis m
w o u ldg iv e8 0%
w ith in0 .2 7 a rc s e c d ia m e te r.
Its h o u ldb e re m e m b e re dfu rth e rth a te n e rg yc o n c e n tra tio n

v a lu e s ,a lth o u g h a na p p a re n tlys im p le m e a n so fs p e c ific a \ue000 tio n ,a re th em ostd iffic u lt v a lu e st o p ro v efo rm a llyw ith th e H a rtm a n n

m e th o d
a n dte n d
t ob e
p e s s im is ticb e c a u s eo f
th eh ig h s p a tia lfre q u e n c y re s id u a l s ta tis tic a l a n d s y s te m a \ue000
t i ce rro rse n te rin g
a sb a c k g ro u n d
n o is e
w ith
a
r e la tiv e ly
la rg ee ffe c to nth ec o n c e n tra tio n
v a lu e s .
O urw o rko n th ep rim efo c u s h a dc o n v in c e d
u sth a t th e
dom es e e in g w a sp ro b a b lyth e
m a jo rlim itin gfa c to r-w e
w o n d e re dw hatth e C a s s e g ra info c u sw o u ld
r e v e a l inth is
re s p e c t!
C a s s e g r a in
F o c u s
T h e C a s s e g ra info c u s (C F )a lig n m e n t a n d te s t w a s a re la \ue000
tiv e ly
s im p le
p ro c e s s
c o m p a re d
w ith
th e
p rim e
fo c u s -\ue000
itto o ko n ly 3 w e e k sfo r th re es ta ffm e m b e rsfro m
G eneva,
c o m p a re dw ith1 1w e e k sfo rth ep rim efo c u s (P F ). T h e m a in
re a s o nfo rth isw a sth a t th eP Fo p e ra tio n

re p re s e n te d th e first useo fth e te le s c o p e . A ll th e b a s ica lig n m e n t h a d to b e d o n efro m

s c ra tc ha n dm a n y g e n e ra l" te e th in gp r o b le m s " o v e r c o m e . T h e in itia lp a rto f th e C Fa lig n m e n t w a ss im p ly a re p e titio n

o fth e
P F
p ro c e d u re --e s ta b lis h in g
a
s ig h tin g
lin e
p e r p e n d ic u la rt oth e o -a x is a n d
p a s s in gth ro u g h
th e
c e n treo fth e
p rim e
m irro r.(T h is
re q u ire m e n ts te m sfro m
th e n e e dfo ra c c e s s ib ility toth es o u th p o le a n d m e a n sth a t
th eo -a x is
is th e
s ta rtin g
p o in to fth e
o p tic a la lig n m e n t.)
T h iss ig h tin g
lin e w a s lin e d
u pw ith

ac ro s s -h a ird e fin in g th ec e n treo f th eto pu n ito f th e te le s c o p e ,th isc ro s s -h a ir h a v in g b e e n

lin e d
u pw ithth e
c e n treo fth e
p rim e
m irro r
d u rin g
th e
p r e v io u s
P F
a d ju s tm e n t.
O n
o u r
te le s c o p e
th e reis n op o s s ib ilityo ftra n s la tin g la te ra lly th es e c o n d a ry
m irro rw ith in
it sto p
u n it-itc a n
o n lybe tilted.W ith
th is
s in g led e g re e
o ffre e d o m ,o n lyo n ec o n d itio n
c a n
b efu l\ue000
fille d ,
a n d
th is
m ust
b e
im a g e ry
fre e
fro m
d e c e n trin g
com a.
T h is
is
p o s s ib le
e v e n
i fth e
o p tic a l
a x e s
o fth e
p rim a ry
a n d
s e c o n d a ry
a re
n o te x a c tly
c o in c id e n t,fo ra
r e s id u a ltra n s la tio n
e rro rc a n
b e
c o mp e n s a te d
b y
a tilt.
B utth isw illin c lin e th ep o in tin gd ir e c tio n (e ffe c tiv eo p tic a l
a x is ) s o
th a tth e
to le ra n c e
o n
p e r p e n d ic u la r ity
w ith
th e
o-axis m ayn o t be
m e t.
3

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