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messenger-no12

messenger-no12

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Published by: European Southern Observatory on Apr 07, 2009
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05/11/2014

TH E
M E S S E N G E R
N o.1 2 -M a rc h
1 9 7 8
L aS illa A n n o 1 9 x x ?
T h eE S O
C o n fe re n c e o n O p tic a l T e le s c o p e so f
th e
F u tu re
(p .2 )show eda
c le a r d iv is io n
b e -
tw e e n th e a s tro n o m e rs w h o w a n t v e ry la rg e te - \
le s c o p e s(1 6t o 2 5m
c l a s s )a n dth o s e w h oo p t
fo ra n
a rra yo fin te r lin k e d
"s m a lI"te le s c o p e s
(-tO D
e le m e n ts , e a c h2 -3m
m irro rd ia m e te r).
C o n fro n te d
w ith
th e
c o n tin u o u s ly

in c r e a s in g dem andfo rp r e c io u ste le s c o p e tim e o nL a S illa (p .1 6 ), w eh e re p re s e n t th e

" o p tim a l-s o lu tio n
p la n "fo rL a S illath a t r e c e n t/y le a k e d fr o m

th e u ltra -s e c re t E S O P la n n in gG ro u p(n o te v e n th e F in a n c e C o m m itte e k n o w sa b o u tit!). D r a w nb y K a re nH um byo f th e E n g in e e r in gG ro u p inG e- n e v a , th is

b e a u tifu lly
s im p le
c o n c e p tio n
p u r\ue000
p o rte d lya im sa t th e
d e fin itiv ep a c ific a tio n
o f

th e v a rio u s a d v o c a te so f fu tu r e te le s c o p e sb ya m a s te rfu l c o m b in a tio no f s iz ea n d q u a n tity .I tis re p o rte d ,

h o w e v e r,
th a t fe a rs
h a v e
b e e n
e x -
p re s s e d
a b o u tth e
lo n g -te rm
s ta b ility
o fth e
s u p p o rt.. . n o ,y o u a re w r o n g ,o f th eL a S illa
b e d ro c k ,o fc o u rs e .
E S O
C o n fe r e n c eo n O p tic a l T e le s c o p e s o f th e F u tu re
T h is
c o n fe re n c e
to o k
p la c e
in
G eneva
b e tw e e n
1 2
a n d
15 Decem ber 1977.
T h etim es e e m e d rip efo r a c o n fe r e n c e o n th is s u b je c t,fo r
m a n y id e a s a re in th e a ir a n d c e r ta in
p ro je c ts in th e U n ite d
S ta te s w h ic h
d e v ia te m a rk e d ly fr o m
th ec o n v e n tio n a l te le \ue000
s c o p e a rea lre a d y c o m p le te d
o rin a c tiv e s tu d y .

T h e c o n fe re n c e o p e n e d w ith a re v ie wo fth e a s tro n o m ic a l c a s efo rla rg e te le s c o p e s , a n o v e r v ie wo f th e te c h n o lo g ic a l p o s s ib ilitie s a n dth ep o s s ib ilitie s fr o m

s p a c e .
A
s e s s io n
fo llo w e d
o n
c o n v e n tio n a l la rg e te le s c o p e s
in
w h ic h te c h n ic a l a s p e c tso fanum ber o fe x is tin g la rg e te le \ue000
s c o p e s
a n d
th e
p o s s ib le
e x te n s io n
o fc o n v e n tio n a l te le \ue000
s c o p e st o
la rg e r s iz e s w e re p re s e n te d .

T h efo llo w in gd a y w a s d e v o te d e n tire lyt o In c o h e r e n t A r\ue000 ra y s a n dM u lti-M irro rT e le s c o p e s . In th e s e n s e th a t m o s t e f\ue000 fo rtd e v ia tin g fr o m

th e c o n v e n tio n a l la rg e te le s c o p e h a s s o
fa r
g o n e
in
th is
d ir e c tio n ,
th e
n e u tra lo b s e rv e r
h a d
th e
fe e lin g
th a tth is
re p re s e n te d
th e
c e n tre
o fg ra v ity
o fth e

c o n fe re n c e . A w id e v a rie tyo fin te re s tin g s o lu tio n s w e re p re \ue000 s e n te d w ith ac o lle c tin ga re au pt oth e e q u iv a le n to f a 2 5 m te le s c o p e a n d

a rra y s w ith
u pt o
1 0 0 te le s c o p e s .
A s e s s io n o n s p e c ia l t e c h n iq u e sfittin gin ton o c le a rg ro u p
w asfo llo w e d
b y s e s s io n s o n
G o h e re n t A rra y s a n d
In te rfe \ue000
ro m e te rs . T h is g a v e
a b ro a d
r e v ie w

o fc u rre n tte c h n iq u e s a n dfu tu rep o s s ib ilitie s a n d a c o m p a r is o no f o p tic a l a n d ra \ue000 d iote c h n iq u e s .

T h e
la s t
m o rn in g
o f
th e
c o n fe re n c e ,
c o n c e rn e d
w ith
im a g e
p r o c e s s in g
a n d
liv e
o p tic s , s h o w e d
c1early the
tre \ue000
m e n d o u s g a int ob e o b ta in e d
ino v e r c o m in g th e e ffe c tso f
s e e in g
e v e n
w ith o u tin c r e a s e
in
in s tru m e n ta l s iz e . A
c le a r
d is tin c tio n
e m e rg e d

a tth isc o n fe re n c e b e tw e e n th e te rm s " a c tiv eo p tic s "a n d " a c tiv es tru c tu re ".T h e la tte r im p lie s ,fo r e x a m p le , th e a c tiv e c o n tr o l o ft i l to r p o s itio no f s e v e ra l m ir \ue000 ro rst oc o m b in eim a g e s ; th efo rm e r th e c o n tro l o fth e fo rm of, say, a thin

m irro r. T h e
im p o rta n c eo fb o th
p o s s ib ilitie s
b e c a m e in c r e a s in g ly c le a rth ro u g h o u tth e c o n fe re n c e .
T h e fin a l s e s s io n
in c lu d e d a re v ie w
o ftre n d s in

d e te c to r d e v e lo p m e n ts . (D e te c to rs w e re c o n s id e re dto ovast a sub\ue000 je c tto b e d e a lt w ith in d e ta ilb u ta n o v e r v ie w w a s n e c e s s a ry t o

u n d e r lin e th e e s s e n tia lly c o m p le m e n ta r y n a tu r eo fp ro \ue000 g re s s in te le s c o p e d e s ig n a n d d e te c to rs .) T h e re s to f th e s e s \ue000 s io n

w a s d e v o te dt oa r e v ie w

o fth ea s tr o n o m ic a l im p lic a \ue000 tio n so fth ec o n trib u tio n sa n d d is c u s s io n s ,fo llo w e d b y a p a \ue000 n e l d is c u s s io n . T h e la tte r d e v e lo p e d in to a m o s t liv e ly g e n e \ue000 ra l d is c u s s io n w ithn u m e ro u sp a rtic ip a n ts re p re s e n tin g v e ry m any

(o fte n
h e a lth ily
c o n flic tin g !)
v ie w p o in ts .
W h ile
th e
c o n s e n s u sv ie w p o in tseem ed
tos u p p o rt th e v ie w
th a tth e
e m p h a s isfo rp o s t- c o n v e n tio n a l te le s c o p e s s h o u ld lie in th e
P ro c e e d in g s o f C o n fe re n c e
O p tic a l T e le s c o p e s o f th e F u tu re
T h eP ro c e e d in g so f th isc o n fe re n c e
w h ic h
c o n ta in
n e a r ly a ll
th e p a p e rs p re s e n te d a n d th e e s s e n tia lp a rto fth e d is c u s s io n s
a ren o wa v a ila b le .
P le a s e
s e n d
y o u ro rd e rto g e th e rw ith
ac h e q u e
p a y a b le to
E S O
lo rS Ir.4 0 .- (p ric e
0 1c o p yin c lu d in g
p o s ta g e ) to :
E u ro p e a nS o u th e rn
O b s e rv a to ry
c /oG E R N
A ttn . M is sM .G a r v a lh o
G H -1 2 1 1
G eneva2 3
2
in c o h e re n ta d d itio no f m o re p h o to n s fro m
b ig g e rs y s te m s , a
s tro n g ly
v o c a l
m in o rity
w as
c le a r ly
c o n v in c e d
th a t te c h \ue000
n iq u e s
u s in g
p h a s e
in fo rm a tio n
s h o u ld
n o tb e

n e g le c te d . T h e d is c u s s io n a ls o in e v ita b lyb ro u g h tu p th e v e x e d q u e s \ue000 tio no fh o wa na s tro n o m e r s h o u ldo r w o u ld lik e ( n o t n e c e s \ue000 s a r ily th e

sam e
th in g )t o
w o rk
w ith
fu tu re
in s tru m e n ts \ue000
th e v is itt o th e G E R N
in s ta lla tio n s h a d
p ro v o k e d c o n s id e r\ue000
a b leth o u g h to n th is s u b je c t!
Thus ended
a c o n fe r e n c e w h ic h s e e m e d to
h a v e la r g e ly
fu lfille d
it s
p u rp o s e :t o
e n c o u ra g e
th e
d e b a te
o n
h o w
in \ue000
s tru m e n ta l fu n d s in th e fu tur es h o u ld b e s p e n t to b e s t e ffe c t.
T h e o rg a n iz e rsth a n ka ll p a r tic ip a n tsfo r m a k in g
it s u c h
a
s tim u la tin g e v e n t. O u r th a n k s a re d u e p a r tic u la r ly to a ll th e
s p e a k e rsw hoh a v e e n a b le d
u st op ro d u c e a v ir tu a lly c o m \ue000
p le te v o lu m eo fP r o c e e d in g s w ith intw o m o n th s o fth e G o n \ue000
fe re n c e -s e eth e
n o tic e .
R .N . W i/s o n
F o rth c o m in g E S O W o rk s h o p s

T w o E S Ow o rk s h o p s h a v e b e e n p la n n e d d u rin g 1 9 7 8 o n th e s u b je c tso fa s tro n o m ic a lp h o to g ra p h y a n d in fra re d a s tro n \ue000 om y.A sin th e c a s eo f e a rlie r E S O w o rk s h o p s , a tte n d a n c e is lim ite d

a n d
b y in v ita tio n
o n ly .
" M o d e r n T e c h n iq u e sin A s tro n o m ic a l P h o to g ra p h y "
T h isw o rk s h o p w ill ta k e p la c e in G e n e v a o n th e G E R N
p re \ue000
m is e s
d u rin g
M a y 1 6 -1 8 , 1 9 7 8 .A b o u t5 0 p a rtic ip a n ts
a re
e x p e c te d , m o s tly fr o m
E u ro p e a n
c o u n trie s ,b u ta ls o
fro m
N o rth a n dS o u thA m e r ic a a n d A s ia . T h etw o p r in c ip a l s u b -
je c ts
t o
b e
d is c u s s e d
a re
s e n s itiz a tio n
a n d
c a lib r a tio n

o f p h o to g ra p h icp la te s . T h e r e w ill a ls o b e a d is c u s s io na b o u t th e

c o p y in g
o fp la te s
a n d
u s e
o fc o lo u rp h o to g ra p h y
in
a s tro n o m y . S e v e ra l p a r tic ip a n ts w ill ta lka b o u tth e
p h o to \ue000
g ra p h icw o rk
a tth e ir o b s e rv a to rie s a n d
anum bero f n e w
te c h n iq u e s
w ill b e re p o rte d .
T h e p r o c e e d in g s w ill a p p e a r s h o r tly a fte r th e c o n fe re n c e .
F u rth e rin fo rm a tio nm a y b e o b ta in e d fro m
R .M . W e s t, E S O ,
c /oG E R N , G H -1 2 1 1
G e n e v a 2 3 , S w itz e r la n d .
" In fra re d A s tro n o m y "
B y in v ita tio no f th eS to c k h o lm
O b s e rv a to ry , th e E S Ow o rk \ue000
s h o p o n in fr a r e da s tro n o m y w ill b e h e ld o n th e is la n do f U t\u00f6
onJ u n e 20-22, 1978.A b o u t 40 European

a s tro n o m e rs a c \ue000 tiv einin fr a r e da s tro n o m y w ill b e in v ite d ino rd e r to d is c u s s th es c ie n tific fra m e w o rk , th e re s e a rc h

p la n n in g a n d th e in \ue000
s tru m e n ta ld e v e lo p m e n tw h ic h
E S O
s h o u ld
fo s te rin
th is
a re a .
T h ep ro g ra m m eo fth ew o rk s h o p in c lu d e s :
-
R e v ie w
ta lk s
o n
a s tro p h y s ic a lp ro b le m s w h e re
in fra re d
o b s e rv a tio n s a reo fp a r tic u la r v a lu e ,
-

R e v ie w ta lk s o n th e p re s e n t s ta tu so fv a rio u s in s tru m e n ta l te c h n iq u e s in th e fie ldo fIRs p e c tro s c o p ya n dp h o to m e \ue000 try ,

-
R e p o rts o nIRs p a c ep ro je c t a n d o no th e r E u r o p e a n p la n s .
M o r e d e ta ile din fo rm a tio nm a y b e o b ta in e dfro m
P .S a li\ue000
n a ri, E S O ,c /o
C E R N , C H -1 2 1 1
G e n e v a2 3 , S w itz e r la n d .
The ESO
C o u n c il
T h e E S OC o u n c il h e ld its 3 1 s t m e e tin g inM u n ic h o n D e c e m b e r1 ,
1977. The
p re s e n t m e m b e rso f th eC o u n c il a re :
B e lg iu m :
M .D e lo z
P .L e d o u x
L .P o u la e rt
D e n m a rk :
K .G y ld e n k e rn e
P .A .K o c h
B .S tr\u00e4 m g re n
F ra n c e :
J .-F . D e n is s e ( C h a ir m a n )
S .F illio l
Fed. Rep.o fG e rm a n y :
I.A p p e n z e lle r
C .Z e ile
T h e
N e th e rla n d s :
B .O k k e rs e
H .G .v a n
B u e re n
S w e d e n :
M .F e h rm
P .O .L in d b la d
T h e
S c u lp to r D w a r f S p h e r o id a l G a la x y
S .v a nA gt
T h efir s t v is itin ga s tro n o m e r to u s e th e3 .6m
te le \ue000

s c o p e inG c to b e r1 9 7 7 w a s D r. S te v e n v a nA gtfro m th eA s tr o n o m ic a lln s titu teo f th e N ijm e g e n U n iv e r \ue000 s ity , th e N e th e rla n d s .A t th a t tim e th eo b je c tfo r h is s tu d y , th eS c u lp to rd w a rf g a la x y , p a s s e d c lo s e to th e

z e n ith
o f
L a
S illa
a tm id n ig h t.
H e
o b ta in e d
p rim e -fo c u sp h o to g ra p h iep la te sfo r th e
s tu d yo f
v a r ia b le
s ta rs in
th is
n e a rb yg a la x y . A
v e ry la rg e
re d u c tio n
w o rk
is
c o n n e c te d
w ith
th is
k in d
o f
a s tro n o m ic a lre s e a rc h ,a n di t is th e re fo re
n o ty e t
p o s s ib leto g iv e d e ta ile d re s u lts ,b u t D r. v a nA gt h e r e
d is c u s s e s th e re a s o n sfo rin v e s tig a tin g th eS c u lp \ue000
to rd w a rfg a la x y .
F o rty y e a rs a g aH a rlo w S h a p le ya n n o u n c e d
in t h e H a r v a r d
B u lle tin N o . 9 0 8 th ee x c itin gd is c o v e r yo f" A S te lla r S y s te m
o fa N e wT y p e " in S c u lp to r . T h en e w s y s te m

showed up as a n a s s e m b lyo fh a z y im a g e s o na n e x p o s u r e w ith th e 2 4 -in c h B ru c ete le s c o p eo f th e B o y d e n s ta tio n in S o u th A fric a . T h e firs tc o n firm a tio n

o fth e
re a lityo f th e
o b je c tcam efro m
a
p la te o b ta in e d b yS .1 .B a ile y in 1 9 0 8 , o nw h ic h a fa in t p a tc h
o flig h tw a s s e e n a t th e p o s itio n o fth eS c u lp tu r s y s te m . B a i\ue000
le y o b ta in e d th is p la ted u rin ga s ite -te s tin ge x p e d itio n w ith a
1 -in c h
te le s c o p e
a n d
a to ta l e x p o s u re
o v e r fiv e
n ig h tso f
2 3h1 6
m
!A d d itio n a l o b s e r v a tio n s w ith th e 6 0 -in c h te le s c o p e
re s o lv e d th e in d iv id u a l s ta rs a n d ru le do u tth ep o s s ib ility th a t
th eS c u lp to r s y s te m
c o u ldb ea n e x te n d e d c lu s te ro f g a la \ue000
x ie s .
D w a rf s p h e ro id a l
g a la x ie s
a re
g e n e r a lly
know n
b y
th e

n a m eo f th e c o n s te lla tio n inw h ic hth e y a p p e a r. W ith in a p \ue000 p r o x im a te ly2 5 0 k p c , s e v e nS c u lp to r-ty p e s y s te m s a ren o w know nin c lu d in gth e re c e n tly -d is c o v e re dd w a rf in C a rin a .In a d d itio n ,th r e ed w a rf s p h e r o id a l g a la x ie s h a v e b e e n d is c o v \ue000 e re d

b yS .van den
B e rg h
c lo s e to th eA n d ro m e d a
n e b u la .
W ith in
th e
L o c a lG ro u p
th e re
a re
n o w
te n
S c u lp to r-ty p e
s y s te m s
k n o w n . S in c e th e s e o b je c ts a red iffic u ltt o
d e te c t
b e h in d
th e s te lla rfo re g ro u n d
o fo u rG a la x y itisn o t lik e ly
th a tth isnum ber is fre e fro m
s e le c tio n e ffe c ts .
A t th e
tim eo fth e firs t d is c o v e ry th e
in te re s to fa s tro n o \ue000
m e rs
w as
fo c u s s e d
s tro n g ly
o n
th e
s ig n ific a n c e
o f
th e
s h a p e s
o fg a la x ie s .
N ow adays
th e
d w a rfs p h e r o id a l
g a l\ue000
a x ie s , a n d e s p e c ia lly th e n e a re s t, o fte r au n iq u ep o s s ib ility
to s tu d y th e e v o lu tio n
o fis o la te d s te lla r a g g lo m e r a te s .

T h elo ws u r fa c e d e n s ityo f th e s ta rs p e rm its in s p e c tio no f th e in d iv id u a l s ta rs , a ls o in th e c e n tr e re g io no f th e s y s te m s . It g iv e s au n iq u ep o s s ib ility totra c e , in a c o m p le te s u rv e y , a ll th e v a ria b le s ,o fw h ic hth e re a re

m any,th ro u g h
th ew h o le
s y s te m .
T h eS c u lp to rd w a rf s p h e r o id a l g a la x y is lo c a te d a t a d is \ue000
ta n c eo f7 8k p c (2 5 0 ,0 0 0 Iig h t-y e a rs ). T h isis d e riv e dfro m
a
m ean,a p p a re n tlu m in o s ityo f2 0 .1 3m a g n itu d e in Bfo r t h e
R R -L y ra e v a ria b le s ta rs . O n th e s k y th eS c u lp to rs y s te m
h a s
a c o n s id e r a b le s iz e . T h e m o r e th a n 6 0 0 v a r ia b le s w h ic h h a v e
n o w
b e e n
d is c o v e r e d
cover an
e llip tic a l a re a w ith

a m a jo r a x iso fa b o u ttw o d e g r e e s ,c o rre s p o n d in gt o a lin e a rd im e n \ue000 s io n

o f2 .7 k p c .
T h e
p o s itio n s
a n d
id e n tific a tio n s
o fth e
v a r ia b le s a ren o win p re s s (P u b !.o f th e D a v id D u n la p O b s e r\ue000
v a to ry ).
N ew
p h o to g ra p h ic
o b s e rv a tio n s
have been
o b ta in e d
b y
th ea u th o ra t th ep rim efo c u so fth e E S O 3 .6m e tre te le s c o p e
a t La S illa in
O c to b e r1 9 7 7 . T h e lIa -O
p la te s re a c h
b e y o n d
m a g n itu d e2 1 .5 in 4 0 m in u te s . T h e a im
o ft h ep ro g ra m m e is
th ed e te rm in a tio no fth e p e r io d s a n d th e lu m in o s itie sfo r a
s e le c tio n
o fth e
v a r ia b le s
in
th e
1 6a rc m in u te
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p la te s a re e x \ue000 p o s e d inth isp a rto f th ep ro g ra m m e c o n ta in s ap h o to e le c \ue000 t r i csequence as weil as a secondaryp h o to g ra p h ic standard s e q u e n c e .

A tp re s e n t th e p la te s a re b e in g re d u c e d a t th e D e p a rtm e n t
o fA s tro n o m yo fth e U n iv e r s ity a t N ijm e g e n , w h e r e a s e m i\ue000
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th e P e \ue000
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