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Suspension Paper

Suspension Paper

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AN INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOTIVE SUSPENSIONS SYSTEMS
AN INTRODUCTION TOAUTOMOTIVE SUSPENSIONSYSTEMS
Piyush Gaur, MSc Automotive Engineering Faculty of Engineering and Computing Coventry University, UK 
Abstract:
 S 
uspension system is a termwhich is given to a system of springs, Shock absorbers and linkages that connects avehicle to its wheels. A suspension system serves the two dual purposes. It helps incontributing of the car’s handling anbraking for good active safety and driving  pleasure. Any suspension system of an Automotive is classifies into rigid, Independent and combination of the abovetwo. In this paper, a brief introduction to the suspension and is function is explained. Abrief introduction to its designing procedureis also explained along with the factorsaffecting suspension designing. Doublewishbone, McPherson Strut, Torsion bar,Quardalink, Twist beam &Leaf Springs hasbeen discussed in detail along with the carson which they are used. The relationshipbetween the suspension system, the tyre and the full vehicle dynamics performance hasalso been discussed in this paper.
Keywords: Suspensions system, Springs,Double wishbone, Hotchkiss, Adams,Vehicle Dymamics, Multibody systemAnalysis.1. INTRODUCTION
Suspension systems date back perhaps twothousand years or more. Early wagons wereknown to have used elastic wooden poles toreduce the affects of wheel shock. Leasprings in one form or another have beenused since the Romans suspended a two-wheeled vehicle called a Pilentum on elasticwooden poles. Later, some innovativecarriage designs included rudimentary leaf suspension systems. Throughout history, leaf springs would dominate as the primarysuspension design until fairly recently. Leaf springs offered the benefit of simplicity of design and relatively inexpensive cost. Bysimply adding leaves or changing the shapeof the spring, it could be made to supportvarying weights. As a result, major changes primarily tended to revolved around the useof superior materials and makingincremental design modifications.Suspension is a term which is given tosystem of springs, shock absorbers andlinkages that connects a vehicle to itswheels. Suspension systems serve the twodual purposes. It helps in contributing of thecar’s handling and braking for good activesafety and driving pleasure. Secondly, ithelps in keeping vehicle occupantscomfortable and reasonably well associatedfrom road noise, bumps and vibrations. Thesuspension system also protects the vehicleand any cargo or luggage from damage andwear. The design of front and reasuspensions of an automotive may bedifferent. If a road were perfectly flat, withno irregularities, suspensions wouldn't benecessary. But roads are far from flat. Evenfreshly paved highways have subtleimperfections that can interact with thewheels of a car. It's these imperfections thatapply forces to the wheels. According to Newton's laws of motion, all forces have both
magnitude
and
direction
. A bump inthe road causes the wheel to move up anddown perpendicular to the road surface. Themagnitude, of course, depends on whether the wheel is striking a giant bump or a tinyspeck. Either way, the car wheel experiencesa
vertical acceleration
as it passes over animperfection.
COVENTRY UNIVERSITY, UKPage 1
 
AN INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOTIVE SUSPENSIONS SYSTEMS
 
2. CLASSIFICATION OF SUSPENSIONSYSTEM
Vehicle suspensions can be divided intorigid axles (with a rigid connection of thewheels to an axle), independent wheelsuspensions in which the wheels aresuspended Independently of each other, andsemi-rigid axles, a form of axle thatcombines the characteristics of rigid axlesand independent wheel suspensions. On allrigid axles , the axle beam casing alsomoves over the entire spring travel.Consequently, the space that has to be provided above this reduces the boot at therear and makes it more difficult to house thespare wheel. At the front, the axle casingwould be located under the engine, and toachieve sufficient jounce travel the enginewould have to be raised or moved further  back. For this reason, rigid front axles arefound only on commercial vehicles and four wheel drive, general-purpose passenger cars.With regard to independent wheelsuspensions, it should be noted that thedesign possibilities with regard to thesatisfaction of the above requirements andthe need to find a design which is suitablefor the load paths, increase with thenumber of wheel control elements (links)with a corresponding increase in their planesof articulation. In particular, independentwheel suspensions include:
Longitudinal link and semi-trailing armaxles
, which require hardly any overheadroom and consequently permit a wideluggage space with a level floor, but whichcan have considerable diagonal springing.
Wheel controlling suspension and shock-absorber struts
, which certainly occupymuch space in terms of height, but whichrequire little space at the side and in themiddle of the vehicle (can be used for theengine or axle drive) and determine thesteering angle (then also called McPhersonsuspension struts).
Double wishbone suspensions or SLA(Short Length Arm
)
Multi-link suspensions
, which can haveup to five guide per links and which offer the greatest design scope with regard to thegeometric definition of guide links per wheel and which offer the greatest designscope with regard to kingpin offset, pneumatic offset, kinematic behavior withregard to toe-in, camber and track changes, brake/starting torque behavior andelastokinematic property. Broadly speakingthese are the main type of automotivesuspensions systems which are commonlyused in different automotives today. Theseare
Double wish bone suspension system
Mc person Strut suspension system.
Torsion Bar 
Quadra Link 
Twist Beam
Leaf Springs
A. Double wishbone suspension system
It is the independent suspension designwhich uses a two wish bones arms to locatethe wheel. Each wishbone or arm has twomounting points on the chassis and one point at the knucle .The shock absorber andcoil spring mount to the wishbone is used tocontrol the vertical movement. This allowsthe suspension designer engineer to controlthe following parameters:
Camber angle
Caster angle
Toe pattern
Roll center height
Scrub radius, scuff and more.The double wishbone suspension can also bereferred to as double 'A' arms and short longarm (SLA) suspension if the upper andlower arms are of unequal length. SLAs are
COVENTRY UNIVERSITY, UKPage 2
 
AN INTRODUCTION TO AUTOMOTIVE SUSPENSIONS SYSTEMS
very common on front suspensions fomedium to large cars such as theHonda Accord, Volkswagen Passat,Chrysler 300, or Mazda 6/Atenza, pickups, SUVs, and arevery common on sports cars and racing cars.A single wishbone or A-armcan also beused in various other suspension types, suchasMacpherson strutandChapman strut.The suspension consists of a pair of upper andlowers lateral arms. The upper arm isusually shorter to induce negative camber asthe suspension jounces (rises). When thevehicle is in a turn, body roll results in positive camber gain on the outside wheel.The outside wheel also jounces and gainsnegative camber due to the shorter uppearm. The suspension designer attempts to balance these two effects to cancel out andkeep the tire perpendicular to the ground.This is especially important for the outer tire because of the weight transfer to this tireduring a turn.The advantage of a double wishbonesuspension is that it is fairly easy to work out the effect of moving each joint, so youcan tune thekinematicsof the suspensioneasily and optimize wheel motion. It is alsoeasy to work out the loads that different parts will be subjected to which allows moreoptimized lightweight parts to be designed.They also provide increasing negativecamber gain all the way to full jounce travelunlike the MacPherson strut which providesnegative camber gain only at the beginningof jounce travel and then reverses into positive camber gain at high jounceamounts.The disadvantage is that it is slightly morecomplex than other systems like aMacPherson strut. Prior to the dominance of front wheel drivein the 1980s, manyeveryday cars used double wishbone frontsuspension systems or a variation on it.Since that time, the Macpherson strut has become almost ubiquitous, as it is simpler and cheaper to manufacture. In most cases, aMacpherson strut requires less space toengineer into a chassis design, and in frontwheel drive layouts, can allow for moreroom in the engine bay. A good example of this is observed in the Honda Civic, whichchanged its front suspension design from adouble wishbone design, to a Macphersonstrut design after the year 2000 model. Thechanges was made to lower costs, as well asallow more engine bay room for the newlyintroducedHonda K-series engine.
Fig 1: Double Wishbone suspensionsystemB. MAcPherson Strut
McPherson struts are popular struts that areused mainly in the frontsuspensionsonvehicles especially cars. This strut containsdifferent types of components into one package making them ideal for front-wheel-drivecars. The McPherson struts are used indifferent types and models of cars. The strutis used for both rear and front suspension but mainly used in the front suspension because it provides a steering pivot. Thesubframe of the strut is capable of providingthe lateral and longitudinal location of thewheel. The strut was designed by Earl S.McPherson. This strut was used in FordVedette in 1949. The strut consists of awishbone or a compression link which is
COVENTRY UNIVERSITY, UKPage 3

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