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ALAM SEKITAR

ALAM SEKITAR

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Published by: Ensiklopedia Pendidikan Malaysia on Apr 07, 2009
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KUALITI HIDUP MALAYSIA 1999
MALAYSIAN QUALITY OF LIFE 1999
66
 
ALAM SEKITAREnvironment
 
KUALITI HIDUP MALAYSIA 1999
MALAYSIAN QUALITY OF LIFE 1999
67
E
nvironmental considerations are important inassessing the quality of life since the environmentimpacts directly on the well-being of the people.The Environment Index takes into account airquality, percentage of rivers classified as cleanby the Water Quality Index and the percentageof forested land. As the data on air and waterquality was available from 1985 to 1998, theEnvironment Index was computed for that14-year period.The Environment Index declined from 103.9points in 1985 to 100.9 points in 1998 (Figure34). Although rapid economic development andheightened industrial activity had affected thequality of the environment, measures have beentaken, since the early eighties, to control thedischarges and emissions from existing and newsources by implementing and enforcing severalcomprehensive environmental legislations (Box12). This was part of a three-pronged strategy
RAJAH 34Indeks Kualiti Hidup Malaysia dan Indeks Alam Sekitar,1985-1998FIGURE 34Malaysian Quality of Life Index and Environment Index,1985-1998
F
aktor-faktor alam sekitar adalah penting dalammenilai kualiti hidup memandangkan alamsekitar memberi kesan secara langsung ke ataskesejahteraan rakyat. Perkiraan Indeks AlamSekitar mengambilkira kualiti udara, peratussungai yang diklasifikasikan sebagai bersihmengikut Indeks Kualiti Air dan peratus keluasankawasan berhutan. Pada masa ini perkiraantersebut dibuat untuk tempoh 14 tahunbermula dari 1985 hingga 1998memandangkan data mengenai kualiti udaradan air yang ada hanya meliputi tempohberkenaan.Indeks Alam Sekitar telah jatuh daripada103.9 mata pada tahun 1985 kepada 100.9mata pada tahun 1998 (Rajah 34).Sungguhpun pembangunan ekonomi yangpesat dan aktiviti industri yang meningkattelah memberi kesan buruk ke atas kualitialam sekitar, beberapa langkah telah pundiambil sejak awal tahun lapan puluhan bagimengawal pembuangan sisa dan pelepasanasap daripada sumber baru dan yang sediaada dengan melaksana danmenguatkuasakan undang-undang alamsekitar yang komprehensif (Kotak 12). Ini
Bunga Teratai
(Lotus)
Indeks Kualiti Hidup MalaysiaMalaysian Quality of Life IndexIndeks Alam SekitarEnvironment Index
 
KUALITI HIDUP MALAYSIA 1999
MALAYSIAN QUALITY OF LIFE 1999
68
adalah sebahagian daripada strategi serampangtiga mata iaitu mengawal dan mencegahpencemaran, mengambilkira faktor alam sekitardalam perancangan pembangunan danpengurusan sumber semulajadi secaraberkekalan. Strategi ini adalah disokong denganprogram alam sekitar yang lain seperti programpemantauan, pendidikan, penyebaran maklumat,latihan, penyelidikan dan pembangunanmengenai alam sekitar serta kerjasama danpenyelarasan di antara agensi yang berkaitan.Udara yang kotor adalah udara yang dicemarioleh berbagai bahan, lazimnya gas dan partikulat,yang biasanya tidak terdapat dalam udara.Pencemaran udara berlaku melalui pembakaranbahan api fosil dalam proses perindustrian,pengeluaran tenaga dan pengangkutan,pembersihan tanah dan hutan secara pembakaranterbuka, serta pembakaran sisa domestik danindustri (Kotak 13).
Kualiti udara
dinilaiberdasarkan kandungan purata tahunan plumbumto control and prevent pollution, to take intoaccount environmental factors in developmentplanning and implementation, and to sustainablymanage natural resources. The strategy wassupported by other on-going environmentalprogrammes that include environmentalmonitoring, environmental education,dissemination of environmental information,environmental training, environmental researchand development, and inter-agency cooperationand coordination.Air pollution is the contamination of air byany number of substances, usually gaseous andparticulates, which are not normally found in theair. Air pollution occurs through the burning of fossil fuels in industrial processing, energyproduction and transportation, land and forestclearance by burning and the burning of municipal and industrial wastes (Box 13).
Airquality
was assessed by the annual meanconcentrations of atmospheric lead (Pb) and total
Badak Sumatera(Sumateran Rhinocerous)

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