Calque Used as averb,"to calque" means to borrow a word or phrase from another language while translating its components so as to create a newlexemein thetarget language."Calque" itself is aloanwordfrom a Frenchnoun,and derives fromtheverb"calquer" (to trace, to copy), while loanword is a calque of theGerman"Lehnwort", and loan translation
a loan translation of "Lehnübersetzung".Proving that a word is a calque sometimes requires more documentation than doesan untranslated loanword, since in some cases a similar phrase might have arisen in both languages independently. This is less likely to be the case when the grammar of the proposed calque is quite different from that of the language proposed to be borrowing, or the calque contains less obvious imagery.Calquing is distinct fromphono-semantic matching.While calquing includes(semantic)translation,it does not consist of phoneticmatching (i.e. retaining theapproximatesoundof the borrowedwordthrough matching it with a similar-sounding pre-existentwordor morphemein the target language).False friends(French:faux amis) are pairs of wordsor phrasesintwolanguagesor dialects(or letters in two alphabets) thatlook or soundsimilar, but differ in meaning. An example is Portuguese raro "rare" vs.Spanish raro "strange" (similarly, Spanish exquisito "exquisite" vs. Portugueseesquisito "strange").Often, there is a partial overlap in meanings, which creates additionalcomplications: e.g. Spanish lima, meaning "lime" (the fruit) and"lime"(thecalcium-based material), but also"file" (the tool).The term should be distinguished from "false cognates", which are similar words indifferent languages that appear to have a commonhistorical linguisticorigin(whatever their current meaning) but actually do not.As well as complete false friends, use of loanwordsoften results in the use of aword in a restricted context, which may then develop new meanings not found inthe original language.