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Linking Words

Linking Words

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Published by Fernando Castro
Document on linking words and phrases from "The Student Learning Centre"
Document on linking words and phrases from "The Student Learning Centre"

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Published by: Fernando Castro on Apr 07, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/10/2013

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Linking words and phrases, updated by JLM, 24/3/05, SLC, page 1
Studentearning Centre
FLINDERS UNIVERSITYLocation:Student Centre, Level OneTelephone: 61-8-8201 2518 Fax: 61-8-8201 3839E-mail:study.skills@flinders.edu.auInternet:http://adminwww.flinders.edu.au/SLC/index.htmlPostal:PO Box 2100 Adelaide, SA 5001
Linking Words andPhrases
Most pieces of formal writing are organised in a similar way: introduction;development of main ideas or arguments; conclusion. Linking words andphrases join clauses, sentences and paragraphs together.A piece of writing or text may include the following:one idea is linked to another an alternative is presentedan objection is madeidea
and
idea
or 
idea
but
idea
 
Linking words and phrases, updated by JLM, 24/3/05, SLC, page 2
Connectives
The main linking words and phrases are grouped below according to the similarity of their meaning to the three basic connectives
and, or, but.
Some can be used to linkparagraphs and others can only be used to link ideas within a paragraph.1 enumeration (points in order)a listing2 additioni reinforcementii comparisonb transition (leads to a new stage)c summary (gives a summary or conclusion)1 andd reference (refers to what was said before)e examplef result (the consequence of what was said before)g place (refers to things in or outside the document)h time (refers to other studies)2 ori reformulation (expresses something in another way) j replacement (expresses an alternative)3 butk contrast (presents a different view)l concession (agrees that something is good, with limitations)
1. and
a
Listing
1
Enumeration
indicates a
cataloguing 
of what is being said.Most lists use clearly defined groups of words
:
etc.etc.above alllast but not least mark the end of an
ascending 
order first and foremost mark the beginning of a
descending 
first and most importantly order first,furthermore,finally,onea seconda thirdfirst(ly),second(ly),third(ly),
to begin/startwith,in the second place,moreover,to conclude,
 
Linking words and phrases, updated by JLM, 24/3/05, SLC, page 3
2.
Addition
to what has been previously indicated.i.
Reinforcement
 
(includes confirmation):above all indeedactually in additionadditionally moreover again not only . . . but also . . .also notablyas well (as) obviouslybesides particularlyespecially specificallyfurther thenfurthermore toowhat is moreii.
Comparison
(similarity to what has preceded):b.
Transition
(can lead to a new stage in the sequence of thought):often used when discussing something brieflyc.
Summary
(a generalisation or summing up of what has preceded):also in the same wayboth . . . and . . . likewisecorrespondinglysimilarlyequally toonowregardingturning towith resect/reard toas for as toaltogetherthenhencethereforein briefthusin conclusionto concludein shortto sum upoverallto summarise

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