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Pelleting and extrusion in aquafeed technology

Pelleting and extrusion in aquafeed technology

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Aquaculture is a developing activity around the world. As the industry grows, so does the aquafeed market. Aquafeeds are comprised of a number of ingredients that are mixed in various proportions to complement one another to form a nutritionally complete compound diet. According to the physical characteristics, they can be divided into powder, particle, pelleted and extrusion aquafeed. They can also be divided into sinking, slow sinking and floating aquafeed according to their buoyancy. On the basis of aquafeed energy, they can be divided into low energy, medium energy and high-energy aquafeeds.
Aquaculture is a developing activity around the world. As the industry grows, so does the aquafeed market. Aquafeeds are comprised of a number of ingredients that are mixed in various proportions to complement one another to form a nutritionally complete compound diet. According to the physical characteristics, they can be divided into powder, particle, pelleted and extrusion aquafeed. They can also be divided into sinking, slow sinking and floating aquafeed according to their buoyancy. On the basis of aquafeed energy, they can be divided into low energy, medium energy and high-energy aquafeeds.

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Published by: International Aquafeed magazine on May 10, 2013
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May | June 2013Pelleting and extrusion in aquafeedtechnology
International Aquafeed is published six times a year by Perendale Publishers Ltd of the United Kingdom. All data is published in good faith, based on information received, and while every care is taken to prevent inaccuracies,the publishers accept no liability for any errors or omissions or for the consequences of action taken on the basis of information published.©Copyright 2013 Perendale Publishers Ltd. All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced in any formor by any means without prior permission of the copyright owner. Printed by Perendale Publishers Ltd. ISSN: 1464-0058
INCORPORATINGfIsh fARmING TeChNOlOGy
 
Pelleting and extrusionin aquafeed technology
by Doris Du, sales representative, Allance Machinery, China
A
quacultureisadevelopingactivityaroundtheworld.Astheindustrygrows,sodoestheaquafeedmarket.Aquafeedsarecomprisedofanumberofingredientsthataremixedinvariousproportionstocomplementoneanothertoformanutritionallycompletecompounddiet.Accordingtothephysicalcharacteristics,theycanbedividedintopowder,particle,pelletedandextrusionaquafeed.Theycanalsobedividedintosinking,slowsinkingandfloatingaquafeedaccordingtotheirbuoyancy.Onthebasisofaquafeedenergy,theycanbedividedintolowenergy,mediumenergyandhigh-energyaquafeeds.
Raw materials foraquafeed production
Commonbasicrawmaterialstothemanufactureofmostaquafeedsaresimilarto thoseemployedinthemanufactureofother typesofanimalfeeds.However,itshouldbenoted thataquafeedsshouldavoidtheuseofhighlevelsofplantorveg-etablefibresandcarbohydrateswhicharepoorlydigestedand transformedbyfish.Rawmaterialsforaqua-feedsincludecereals(maize,wheat,barley,rice,oatetc.),cerealby-products(wheatflour,cornbran,wheatbranetc.),meatmeal,fishmeal,shrimpmeal,squidmeal,bloodmeal,poultryby-productmeal,(fullfat)soybeanmeal,othervegetableproteinmeals,fatsandoils,vitaminandmineralpremix,salt,stabilizersandbindersetc.Themajorcomponentsofaquafeedsareprotein(plantprotein,animalproteinandsinglecellprotein),starch(sinkingaquafeedconsistsmorethan10%andfloatingaquafeedconsistsmorethan20%),crudefat,rawfibre,crudeashandmicronutrients.Starchhasgreatgelatinizationunderhightemperatureandhighhumidityconditions.Itcanimprovethestabilityofaquafeedsandextrusiondensityofextrudedaquafeeds.
Aquafeed processing technology
Themanufactureofaquafeedsismorecomplexthancommonfeedmanufacture.Hardness,size,buoyancy,durabilityandwaterstabilitymustallbetakenintoaccount.Aquafeedprocessingtechnologyisnotunique.Itreliesonthedevelopmentmadeinconventionalanimalfeedprocess-ingtechnology,butwithsomespecificapplications.Themainprocessingtech-nologyforaquafeedsispelleting(mainlyproducesinkingaquafeeds)andextrusion(canproducesinkingorfloatingextrudedaquafeeds).Aquafeedpelletingtechnologyisstricter thancommonanimalpelletedfeed.Typically,sinkingaquafeedsaremostlymadewithfeedpelletmills.Pelletingisstillthepredominatemethodforsinkingfeedproduction.Theaquafeedpelletingprocessesisdescribedbelow:
Grinding
Itisaparticlesizereductionprocessforrawmaterialsbyhammermills.Grindingisbenefi-cialforthemixingoperationandcanimprove thenutritionalutilizationofrawmaterials.Foraquafeedprocessing,anultrafinefeedhammermillisnecessary.
Mixing
Thegroundmaterialsmustbemixedwith theproportionedrawmaterialstoobtaina
Table 1:
Cassification of aquafeeds based upon the energy eves and processing technoogy low energyMedium energyHigh energProtein (%)30-4043-5240-48Fat (%)6-1312-2522-35Processing machineaquafeed peet miextruder/aquafeed peet miextrudearget speciessamon, troutseabass, turbotcarp, tiapia
34 | ItrtIol
AquAFeed
| May-June 2013
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