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Applied Termodynamics 01

# Applied Termodynamics 01

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06/25/2013

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APPLIED THERMODYNAMICSFORSECOND YEAR / THIRD SEMESTER EEE DEPT.UNIT I

BASIC CONCEPTS
INTRODUCTION
Thermodynamics is defined as the branch of science which deals with therelations between energy and heat. These relations are governed by the laws of thermodynamics. These laws are based on the principle of energy conversion.It states that energy can be changed from one form to another but the total energyremains constant. In other words energy cannot be created or destroyed.
APPLICATIONS OF THERMODYNAMICS
Power plants
IC engines
Turbines
Compressors
Refrigeration
Air-conditioning
UNITS AND DIMENSIONS
All physical quantities are characterized by dimensions. Dimensions of physicalquantities may be defined as the properties in terms of quality not of magnitude by whicha physical quantity may be described. Length (L), area (A)and volume (V)are all differentdimensions which describe certain measurable characteristics of an object, e.g.,A=L
2
and V=L
3
The arbitrary magnitudes assigned to the dimensions are called as units.In other words, a unit is a definite standard by which a dimension is to be measured.The primary or fundamental dimensions are length L in m, mass m in kg, timein sec andtemperature T in K.The secondary or derived dimensions are velocity V in m/s, Energy E in J and volume Vin m these are expressed in terms of primary dimensions.
SYSTEM OF UNITS
The most common system of unit is metric system SI, which is also known as theInternational System. In this text, the SI (System International) system of units has beenused.

Energy:
Energy is defined as the capacity to do work. The various forms of energy areheat energy, mechanical energy, electrical energy and chemical energy. Unit of energy isNm or Joule (J) andkWh.1 kWh = 3.6 x 10
6
JThe energy per unit mass is defined as specific energy whose unit is J/kg.
Force:
Force acting on a body is defined by Newton
s second law of motion. Accordingto this law, force is proportional to the product of mass and acceleration. When a force of one Newton applied to a body having mass of one kilogram, gives it an acceleration of one m/s. The unit of force is Newton (N).1 N = l kgm/sWeight of a body (W) is the force with which the body is attracted to the centre of theearth. It is the product of its mass (m) and the acceleration due to gravity.i.e.,W= mg(Value of g = 9.81 m/s at sea level)
Work:
Work is defined as the work done when the point of application of 1 N force movesthrough a distance of 1m in the direction of the force, whose unit is Joule or Nm. Theamount of work (W) is the product of the force (F) and the distance moved (L), W = F×L.
Power:
Power is defined as the rate of energy transfer or the rate of work. The unit of power iswatt (W)1N m/s=1J/s =1W1 MW=10
6
Kw
Pressure:
Pressure is defined as the force per unit area exerted whose unit is N/m
2
which is alsoknown as Pascal (Pa) and for larger pressures, kPa (Kilo Pascal) and MPa (Mega Pascal)are used. Other units for pressure not in the SI unitsbut commonly used are bar andstandard atmosphere (atm)0.1 MPa = 100 kPa = 10
5
Pa 10
5
N/m = 1 bar1 atm = 101 .325 kPa = 1.01325 bar