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Applied Termodynamics 05

Applied Termodynamics 05

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Published by Muthuvel M

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Published by: Muthuvel M on Apr 08, 2009
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01/22/2011

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UNIT 5HEAT TRANSFER
 
INTRODUCTION
Heat transfer is transmission of energy from one region to another as a result of temperature difference or gradient.
Since differences in temperature exist all over the universe, thephenomena of heatflow are asuniversal as gravitational acceleration.
Mechanical engineers deal with the problem of heat transfer in the design of A.Cengines, refrigeration and air-conditioning plants, steam generation systems and manyothers.
The electrical engineers require the knowledge of heat transfer for designing thecooling systems of motors, generators and transformers.
The knowledge of heat transfer is essential to the civil engineers in the construction of dams, tunnels and civil structures.
The heat transfer is equallyimportant to the chemical engineers in freezing,condensation,evaporation and boiling point.
MODES OF HEAT TRANSFER
Modes of heat transfer are conduction, convection and radiation.In all heat transfermodes, a temperature difference must exist to cause heat flow and heat always flows inthe direction of lower temperature.
Heat conduction due to theproperty of matter which causes heat energy to flowthrough the matter even if the body is impermeable to any kind of radiation and itsparts are not in motion relative to one another (in the macroscopic sense).
Heat convection is due to the property of moving matter (naturally or under force) tocarry heat energy from higher temperature region to lower temperature region asinternal energy (transporting load from one place to another).
Heat radiation is due to the property of matter to emit and absorb different kinds of electro-magnetic radiations. The radiation heat transfer between two bodies takes placewithout any carrying medium as required in conduction and convection.
 
It is not the purpose of this chapter to introduce the students with thebehavior of themolecules under each mode of energy transfer but to introduce the laws and ways tofind net transfer of heat energy by each mode or by combined modes.
STEADY AND UNSTEADY STATE HEAT TRANSFER
Steady state heat transfer through a body and between the
bodies implies that thetemperature of the body varies with the position but not with time. The temperature ateach point of the body remains constant in course of time. The statement can berepresented as,dT/dt =0 dT/dx 0Where T is temperature and t is time. The heat flow rate (kJ/m
2
-hr) through the body orfrom the body remains constant steady state condition.
In unsteady state heat transfer process, the temperature of the body varies with timeand not with position.This can be stated (dT/dt) = 0. The heat flow rate through thebody or from the body varies with time and location.
The present chapter will deal mostly with steady state heat transfer process.
FOURIER LAW OF CONDUCTION AND THERMAL CONDUCTIVITY
Fourier law of conduction is represented by the equationWhereQ=heat flow through a body per unit time.A=surface area of heat flow (perpendicular to the direction of flow)dT=temperature difference of the faces of block of thickness dx throughwhich heat flows.dx=thickness of body along the direction of heat flow.The above law can be represented by the equality as.

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