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CAM-UNIT-3

CAM-UNIT-3

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Published by Muthuvel M

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Published by: Muthuvel M on Apr 08, 2009
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05/11/2014

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UNIT- IIIConstructional Features of CNC MachinesIntroduction:
The design and construction of CNC machines differs greatly from that of conventionalmachine tools.The difference arises from the requirement of highest machining accuracy andperformance level.There are some common features for design of all the machines like cutting speed andfeed, gear boxes, constructional elements like slideways, beds, spindles.Since CNC machines are operated automatically, the operator’s supervision is less and soa careful design consideration is necessary to avoid very large damage.Due to the following factors, CNC machines are subjected to unexpected deformation1. High speed in CNC2. More feed rate3. More pressure of cutting tool on workpiece4. Noise and vibration5. Friction of slideways6. Thermal deformation of machine partsThe above factors become reason for1. Poor quality products2. Operator’s fatigue3. Accidents4. Low production5. Higher maintenance costSo the following factors should be considered for testing the performance of a CNCmachine.1. Reliability of CNC2. Production accuracy3. Production rateThe CNC machine should have lesser breakdown. It should be reliable.The parts manufactured by CNC should have dimensional accuracy and good surfaceThe parts produced per day (or) the metal removed per unit time should be more toincrease the production rate.4. Operator’s convenientThe operator should feel lesser fatigue so that he can work with ease5. SafetyVery important factor is safety. The ONC machine should be properly guarded against allthe possible accidents. The situation should make the operator feels it safe to work onCNC machine.
 
The design consideration of CNC is explained in two areas.1. Control System Design2. Mechanical System Design
Control System Design
The designer should have thorough knowledge about all control systems and shouldselect proper control system according to the customer are the main consideration forselection of control system.
Analog versus Digital
Analog Control SystemThe feed hark signal is generally of analog f and the data is converted into digital form. Inanalog systems, the values are varying continuously with respect to the quantities.Digital Control SystemThe values are measured in steps in this system. For a machine is moving through 0.008mm.And the system least count is 0.01 mm. Then the value will change only after the quantityhas changed by at least 0.01 mm.Normally in CNC systems, the information is repeatedly converted from analog to digitaland digital to analog.So care should be taken for selecting technology for different control unit system.
Punched tape (or) Magnetic Tape (or) Floppy (or) CD
For point to point applications punched tapes are used, because programming andpreparing punched tapes are cheap and easy.For contouring parts, magnetic tapes are used since it can handle large volume of data.Sometimes these magnetic tapes have more detailed cutter path information so thatinterpolator can be eliminated.Nowadays, the punched tape and magnetic tapes are replaced by powerful computer partprogramming.
 
From simple to complicated part programmes are keyed into the hard disk of the CNCcomputer (or) DNC computer and it can be downloaded at any time for execution.The programme can be modified, edited, some part may be added and, some part may hedeleted.It is highly flexible. So nowadays, the choice is only for computer and so the CNCsystem will be selected with use of computers only.The part programmes loaded in the floppy (or) CD ROM can be used for partprogramming.
Open loop vs Closed loop system
We know already, the open loop control system have no feed back devices whereas theclosed loop systems have feedback devices.The closed loop control systems are more precise when compared with open loop system.But closed loop system is more expensive.If we use ‘digital pulse hydraulic motor’ in the open loop control system, we caneliminate need of closed loop system
Linear vs Rotary Transducers
Transducers are used to convert the mechanical movements into electrical signals.The linear transducers get direct drive from actual slide displacement.But, rotary transducers have indirect measurement by being attached at the ends of thelead screws and hence it simulates only the relative movement of tool and work piece.Linear transducer like ‘Ferranti’ systems is more accurate and widely accepted.But nowadays, the rotary transducers like ‘Synchro’ systems are slowly getting accepted.By analyzing different control systems, the designer can select the proper control systemaccording to the customer’s need and requirement.
Mechanical System Design
The conventional machines failed because of following factors.1. Lack of stiffness.2. Back lash - It is the clearances i threads of lead screws etc3. Machine tool resonance4. Machine tool chatter.

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