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Festival Walk

Festival Walk

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Published by jayambe2910

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Published by: jayambe2910 on May 11, 2013
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rights are the rights and entitlements claimed for women and girls of many societies worldwide.In some places these rights are institutionalized or supported by law, local custom, and behaviour, whereas in others they may 444be ignored or suppressed. They differ from broader notions of human rights through claims of an inherent historical and traditional bias against the exercise ofrights by women and girls in favour of men and boys.[1]Issues commonly associated with notions of women's rights include, though are not limited to, the right: to bodily integrity and autonomy; to vote (suffrage); to hold public office; to work; to fair wages or equal pay; to own property; to education; to serve in the military or be conscripted; to enter into legal contracts; and to have marital, parental and religious rights.[2]Contents [hide]1 History of women's rights1.1 China1.2 Greece1.3 Ancient Rome1.4 Religious scriptures1.4.1 Bible1.4.2 Qur'an1.5 The Middle Ages1.6 18th and 19th century Europe2 Equal employment rights for women and men3 Suffrage, the right to vote4 Property rights5 Modern movements5.1 Birth control and reproductive rights5.2 United Nations and World Conferences on Women6 Natural law and women's rights7 Human rights and women's rights7.1 Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination Against Women7.2 United Nations Security Council Resolution 13257.3 Hillary Rodham Clinton speaks out for women's rights
7.4 Maputo Protocol8 Rape and sexual violence8.1 Rape as an element of the crime of genocide8.2 Rape and sexual enslavement as crime against humanity9 2011 study of status by country10 See also11 References12 Sources13 External linksHistory of women's rightsSee also: Legal rights of women in history and Timeline of women's rights (otherthan voting)ChinaThe status of women in China was low, largely due to the custom of foot binding.About 45% of Chinese women had bound feet in the 19th century. For the upper classes, it was almost 100%. In 1912, the Chinese government ordered the cessationof foot-binding. Foot-binding involved alteration of the bone structure so thatthe feet were only about 4 inches long. The bound feet caused difficulty of movement, thus greatly limiting the activities of women.Due to the social custom that men and women should not be near to one another, the women of China were reluctant to be treated by male doctors of Western Medicine. This resulted in a tremendous need for female doctors of Western Medicine inChina. Thus, female medical missionary Dr. Mary H. Fulton (1854-1927)[3] was sent by the Foreign Missions Board of the Presbyterian Church (USA) to found the first medical college for women in China. Known as the Hackett Medical College for Women (???????),[4][5] this College was located in Guangzhou, China, and was enabled by a large donation from Mr. Edward A.K. Hackett (1851-1916) of Indiana,USA. The College was aimed at the spreading of Christianity and modern medicineand the elevation of Chinese women's social status.[6][7]GreeceThe status of women in ancient Greece varied form city state to city state. Records exist of women in ancient Delphi, Gortyn, Thessaly, Megara and Sparta owningland, the most prestigious form of private property at the time.[8]In ancient Athens, women had no legal personhood and were assumed to be part ofthe oikos headed by the male kyrios. Until marriage, women were under the guardianship of their father or other male relative, once married the husband became awoman
s kyrios. As women were barred from conducting legal proceedings, the kyrios would do so on their behalf.[9] Athenian women had limited right to property and therefore were not considered full citizens, as citizenship and the entitlement to civil and political rights was defined in relation to property and the means to life.[10] However, women could acquire rights over property through gifts,dowry and inheritance, though her kyrios had the right to dispose of a woman
s property.[11] Athenian women could enter into a contract worth less than the valueof a
medimnos of barley
(a measure of grain), allowing women to engage in petty trading.[9] Slaves, like women, were not eligible for full citizenship in ancientAthens, though in rare circumstances they could become citizens if freed. The only permanent barrier to citizenship, and hence full political and civil rights,in ancient Athens was gender. No women ever acquired citizenship in ancient Athens, and therefore women were excluded in principle and practice from ancient Athenian democracy.[12]By contrast, Spartan women enjoyed a status, power, and respect that was unknownin the rest of the classical world. Although Spartan women were formally excluded from military and political life they enjoyed considerable status as mothersof Spartan warriors. As men engaged in military activity, women took responsibility for running estates. Following protracted warfare in the 4th century BC Spartan women owned approximately between 35% and 40% of all Spartan land and property.[13][14] By the Hellenistic Period, some of the wealthiest Spartans were women.[15] They controlled their own properties, as well as the properties of male relatives who were away with the army.[13] Spartan women rarely married before th
e age of 20, and unlike Athenian women who wore heavy, concealing clothes and were rarely seen outside the house, Spartan women wore short dresses and went where they pleased.[16] Girls as well as boys received an education, and young womenas well as young men may have participated in the Gymnopaedia ("Festival of Nude Youths").[13][17]Plato acknowledged that extending civil and political rights to women would substantively alter the nature of the household and the state.[18] Aristotle, who had been taught by Plato, denied that women were slaves or subject to property, arguing that "nature has distinguished between the female and the slave", but he considered wives to be "bought". He argued that women's main economic activity isthat of safeguarding the household property created by men. According to Aristotle the labour of women added no value because "the art of household managementis not identical with the art of getting wealth, for the one uses the material which the other provides".[19]Contrary to these views, the Stoic philosophers argued for equality of the sexes, sexual inequality being in their view contrary to the laws of nature.[20] In doing so, they followed the Cynics, who argued that men and women should wear thesame clothing and receive the same kind of education.[20] They also saw marriage as a moral companionship between equals rather than a biological or social necessity, and practiced these views in their lives as well as their teachings.[20]The Stoics adopted the views of the Cynics and added them to their own theoriesof human nature, thus putting their sexual egalitarianism on a strong philosophical basis.[20]Ancient RomeFor more details on this topic, see Women in ancient Rome.Fulvia, the wife of Mark Antony, commanded troops during the Roman civil wars and was the first woman whose likeness appeared on Roman coins.[21]Freeborn women of ancient Rome were citizens who enjoyed legal privileges and protections that did not extend to non-citizens or slaves. Roman society, however,was patriarchal, and women could not vote, hold public office, or serve in themilitary.[22] Women of the upper classes exercised political influence through marriage and motherhood. During the Roman Republic, the mother of the Gracchus brothers and of Julius Caesar were noted as exemplary women who advanced the career of their sons. During the Imperial period, women of the emperor's family couldacquire considerable political power, and were regularly depicted in official art and on coinage. Plotina exercised influence on both her husband, the emperorTrajan, and his successor Hadrian. Her letters and petitions on official matterswere made available to the public
an indication that her views were considered important to popular opinion.[23]A child's citizen status was determined by that of its mother. Both daughters and sons were subject to patria potestas, the power wielded by their father as head of household (paterfamilias). At the height of the Empire (1st
2nd centuries), the legal standing of daughters differs little if at all from that of sons.[24] Girls had equal inheritance rights with boys if their father died without leavinga will.[25]Couple clasping hands in marriage, idealized by Romans as the building block ofsociety and as a partnership of companions who work together to produce and rearchildren, manage everyday affairs, lead exemplary lives, and enjoy affection[26]In the earliest period of the Roman Republic, a bride passed from her father's control into the "hand" (manus) of her husband. She then became subject to her husband's potestas, though to a lesser degree than their children.[27] This archaic form of manus marriage was largely abandoned by the time of Julius Caesar, when a woman remained under her father's authority by law even when she moved intoher husband's home. This arrangement was one of the factors in the independenceRoman women enjoyed relative to those of many other ancient cultures and up to t

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