FRUITS AND VEGETABLES
• Contain vitamins, minerals, fiber, and various cancer-fighting phytonutrients* (for example:
carotenoids, lycopene, indoles, isoflavones, flavonols).
• Vibrant, intense
is one indicator of phytonutrient* content.
• There is extensive and consistent evidence that diets high in fruits and vegetables are associated
with decreased risks of many cancers, and while results for breast cancer risk are not yet conclusive,
they are promising [2-12].• In a study of about 3000 postmenopausal women, a protective effect for vegetables was observed .o Women who consumed 25 or more servings of vegetables weekly had a 37% lower risk of
breast cancer compared with women who consumed fewer than 9 vegetable servings weekly.
• An epidemiological study reported a significant protective effect of vegetables against breast cancerwhen case-control* and cohort* studies were considered together .• A meta-analysis* – looking at the data from 17 studies  revealed that high vs. low vegetable
consumption was associated with a 25% reduction in breast cancer risk, but these findings were notconfirmed by collected data from 8 studies .
• A recent case-control* study reported women who consumed more than 3.8 servings of fruits and
vegetables daily had a lower risk of breast cancer when compared with women who consumed
fewer than 2.3 daily servings .• Japanese women following a prudent dietary pattern (high in fruits and vegetables, low in fat) had a27% decreased risk of breast cancer .• A Korean case-control study* reported that a high intake of certain fruits and vegetables resulted in
a significantly lower risk of breast cancer in premenopausal (tomatoes) and postmenopausal women(grapes and green peppers) .
• While no effect was observed for vegetables, increasing total fruit intake significantly lowered the risk
of breast cancer when comparing those in the highest to lowest tertile .
o This effect was greater for those with estrogen-receptor positive (ER+) tumors.• Eating a salad vegetable dietary pattern (high consumption of raw vegetables and olive oil) exerted asignificant protective effect against HER-2-positive cancers .• A study assessing plasma or blood carotenoids as a marker for fruit and vegetable intake reportedthat individuals in the top 1/4 had a 43% lower risk of breast cancer recurrence when compared tothose in the lowest 1/4 .• However, no association was observed between fruit and vegetable consumption and breast cancer
recurrence when women consumed five servings daily vs. eight servings daily .
• Breast cancer survivors significantly reduced mortality by following a diet low in fat, high in
vegetables, high in fiber, and high in fruit .
• The combination of consuming five or more daily servings of vegetables and fruits, and accumulating540+ metabolic equivalent tasks-min/wk (equivalent to walking 30 minutes 6 d/wk) decreased
mortality by nearly 50% .
o The effect was stronger in women who had hormone receptor-positive cancers.• Vegetable intake has been inversely associated with serum insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I) levels .