Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
2Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Women's Group Enterprises: A Study of the Structure of Opportunity on the Kenya Coast (paper)

Women's Group Enterprises: A Study of the Structure of Opportunity on the Kenya Coast (paper)

Ratings: (0)|Views: 66|Likes:
Published by Martin Walsh
A paper summarising the results of the authors' study of women's groups and their enterprises in Coast Province, Kenya (not to be confused with the full-length study, which has the same title).
Citation: McCormack, J., Walsh, M. T. & Nelson, C. 1987. Women’s Group Enterprises: A Study of the Structure of Opportunity on the Kenya Coast. Paper presented to the Association for Women in Development (AWID) Conference, Washington D.C., 16 April 1987.
A paper summarising the results of the authors' study of women's groups and their enterprises in Coast Province, Kenya (not to be confused with the full-length study, which has the same title).
Citation: McCormack, J., Walsh, M. T. & Nelson, C. 1987. Women’s Group Enterprises: A Study of the Structure of Opportunity on the Kenya Coast. Paper presented to the Association for Women in Development (AWID) Conference, Washington D.C., 16 April 1987.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Martin Walsh on Apr 09, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

05/11/2014

pdf

text

original

 
VOMEN'SROUPNTERPRISES:ASTUDYOF THESTRUCTUREFOPPORTI'NITYON THEKENYACOASTJeanneMcCormackMartinValshCandace NelsonWorldEducation,Inc.Presentedatthe Associationforl.IomennDeveropmentconferenceVashington,D.C.ApriIL6, 1987Purposeof theStudyAnearlyconcernof development planners,inthepost-Warefforttoimproveecononicconditlonsinthe Third Vorld,vasthe reductionof therateofpopurationgrovth.Durlngthelast25years,knovredge,literature,and hypotheseshaveaccumulatedinuniversitylibiariesandfieldofficesofdeveLopmentworkers vhichindicateanurnberofpolicyandprogramapproachesikelyto succeed(PopulationCrisisCommittee1981).Oneofthesegatheredsupport inthe L970'sandproposedthatsuchindirectinterventionsasincreasingvomen'seducationand raisingincomelevelsamongthepooreststrataofdevelopingcountriesvereessentialforsustainedfertilitydecline.Interestinthisapproachcoincidedviththeemergenceofavorld-videmovementopromotethe economicandsocialequalityofvomen.Proponentsofthesetvocauses--the onevievedasan economicissueand theoiherasapoliticalconcern--joinedforcesatthepointvherebothurgedthatspecialattentionbe devoted,topoor,rural vomenntheirproductiveandreproductiveroles.Theyadvocatedthatassistancetovomenbegiveninanintegratedfashionthatreflectedthevaythe tvo rolesareplay-dout inrealIife.Theresulthasbeenaburgeoninginthe lastdecadeofgender-specificprogramsfor vomenthatpromoteincomegenerationactivitiesandincorporateelementsof_ amiryplanning,nutrition,chird-rearing,literacy,andvocationaleducation.Theseintegrated prograns,i"theyarecalled,depend fortheirsuccess,onmulti-purpoiegroupsofvomenvhoareinterestedin learningtheskillsand informationofferedandvhohavethe.resources(credit,contraceptives,childcare)to apply vhatthey learn.@here was rnade5:ossibleby ContractOTR-oo-78-C-oo-2313-oofrcrnthe Agency forInternational Developnent,Bureau of Program and PoIiryCoordination.
 
-2-
,fn Kenyaparticularly,_multi-purposevomen's groupshaveproliferatedandarevievedaspo_tentiallyeffectivevehiclestofbsteringlocaldevelopmentandcommunityself-reliance.Integrated programsforvomenare sponsoredbyboththestateandnongovernmentalorganizations(NGO's).Evaluationioftheseprogramshaveonthe vholebeenpositive(see,forexampre,N.crarkrggrand-crandon1984),vhileresearchstudieshavebeen no.e'negative(Buvinicr9g4,Feldman1983)abouttheirabilitytodevelopvilbleecononicenterprisesand toaffectvomen'sreproductiverore.Tiretruthisthat verylittleisactuallyknovnaboutthesemulti-purposegroups,particularlyinAfricavheretheyareoftenconfusedvithtraditionaisocialformations.Veryrecently,a fevquantitativestudieshaveappeared(e.g.,Njonjoetar.1985)vhichdemonstratethefragirityofvomin,s groupenterprises.Unfortunately,thesedo notprovideanydeeperinierpretationorclueastoyly-srounsfail.economic?lly.Thereareotherqualiiativestudies(Mvagiru1985,forexample)thatdo notprovidereliablefiguresandthereforetf,edataareofquestionablevalidity.Inshort, virtiallynointerpretableinformationexistsaboutvomen'sprogramsinAfricaon-vhichcanbebasedpolicyandplanningconcernedvithincreasingtheincomesofthepooranddecreasingfertility.rn1983,vorldEducatlon,anAmericanNGg,beganastudyofavomen'sintegrated programtoexamineincomegenerationasavorkabledevelopmentstrategyfor vomenanditsspecificeffectsonparticipants'fertility.ThispaperpresentsvoridEducation,sinitialfindingsconcerningthedevelopment,viabillty,andconstraintsofvomen,sgroupenterprisesinaparticularareaof Kenya.Contextofthe Study_Thestudyfocusedontheprogramof TototoHomendustriesandasampleofthe vomen's groupsithas vorkedvithslnce L977.Tototoisaregionalagencydeeplyrootedinthecoastprovince.operatingfromMombasa,tvasestablishedin1963by theNationalChristiandouncilofKenyaas.a non-profit,voluntaryagencyseekingto helplov-incomecoastalwomenaisetheirstandardof living.TototocreatesLmploymentandincome-generationopportunitiesthrougha tailoring"ou.s"iorfemaleschoolleaversandvorkingwomen,atie-dyeandtailoringworkshopthatemploysvomen,ahandicraftmarketingagency,anda ruraidevelopmentprogram.The latterisTototo'smostrecentadditionto itsstrategiestoovercomevomen,s poverty.In 1977,TototoandVorldEducationstartedvhathasbecomea lo-yearcoLraborationreaching46women's groupsandapproximately1,500women.Thetvoorganizationsdesigneda tiainingprogiimforsixofthewomen,sgroupsvithvhomTototoalreadyvorkedin handicraftproduction.FortvoyearsrTototostaff veretrainedto train groupleadeisingroupdynamics,psycho-socialtrainingexercises,andproblemiolvingusingthe nonformaleducationmethods..Theprogramvasiniendedtoenable "orEntogobeyondhandicraftproductionandtoestablishsrnall-scaleenterprises.0fthesixgroupsinthreedistrictsthat initiallyreceivedtraining,fivearestill
 
-3-
operating.Ineome-generatingactivitiesincludedpoultry production,constructionof rentalproperty,daycarecenters,firewood and charcoalselling,a bakery, andfarming.Tototo assisted somegroupsin identifyingIocalresources fortechnicalassistance,and theMinistries of SocialServices,VaterResources,Agriculture, andHeaIth have continued toprovidesuchhelptoTototogroups.In L982,Vorld Education andTototobegan anevphaseof theprojectundervhichtheprogramvasextendedeventuallyto40nevgroupsin five districts--Mombasa,vale' KiIifi'Taita/Taveta,andTanaRiver.In 1977,neither Tototonor its technicalassistancepartner,l.lorldEducation,vere expertsin small business.Theprogranbeganvithanalmostexclusivefocus onnonformal educatlon;nineyearslater, theemphasishas shiftedto thetransmissionof businessskills andfinancialassistancetovonen'sgroups.Tototo novhas 15groupsthatconsistentlyshov aprofit,thatpayregular,ifsmall,dividendsto theirmembers,andthathavegroupmanagement ystems.The remaininggroupsareinvariousstages ofaccumulatingcapitaltofinance theirprojectsorhaveoperatingbusinessesthatmaypayfor thenselvesbutdonot ingeneralprovideregularincome to theirmembers.These smalI successeshave beenachieved atconsiderablecostandduring a slovandpainfullearningprocesson thepartofthe tvoresponsible agencies.Althoughnot vithoutits share ofproblems' Tototoisarguablythebestgrassroots developmentagencyinKenya.ThemajorityofKenya,svomen'sgroupsdonotreceiveregular extensionservices,donothaveaccesstoloans, anddonot havefrequent supervisionofaccountingandmanagement ystems.The demandorhelp togroupselearlyoutstripsthe supplyavailablefromthegovernmentandNGO's. Itis not surprising,then,thatpreviousresearchershave reachedratherpessimisticconclusionsabouttheviabilityof collectiveincomegenerationprojects.The reasonsunderlyinggroupfailurearenot thoseconventionallytoutedbutratherindicate a substratumof socio-econoniccomplexityofvhich developmentplannersaregenerallyignorant.TheVomen'sGroupMovementn KenyaBy early1987, therevere reputedto be40,000women'sgroupsinKenya, acountry ofeighteenmillionpeople.fn order to understandthestrengthof thismovement,t is essentialtounderstandthegenesisof thevomen,sgroupasitexiststoday.ThomasandothersmaintainthatinKenya,vhere'rtraditionallyvomenhavevorkedtogetherin smallgroupsoftvo,three orfour, sharingtasksaccordingto agriculturalseason...thebasisfor mutual cooperationandnutual enterprisesofvomen'sgroupscanbefoundina socialtraditionr'(Thomas985'6).Infact, thisisnottrue,for suchgroupingsoftenrepresentsporadiccollectivelaborbetveenkinandneighborsandnothingmore.0n thecoast,MijikendaandruralSvahilivomenrsgroupshavenotemergedrom anytraditionalantecedent.Rather, theyare thedirectresult ofKenyagovernmentpolicies vhich haveemphasizedcommunityself-helpandhavepromotedtheformation ofvomen'sgroupstoprovidethelabor andfinancingfor most ofthat self-help.

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->