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"Symmetry and states of self stress in triangulated toroidal frames" by P.W. Fowler and S.D. Guest

"Symmetry and states of self stress in triangulated toroidal frames" by P.W. Fowler and S.D. Guest

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A symmetry extension of Maxwell’s rule for rigidity of frames shows that
every fully triangulated torus has at least six states of self stress with a well
defined set of symmetries related to rotational and translational representations
in the point group.
A symmetry extension of Maxwell’s rule for rigidity of frames shows that
every fully triangulated torus has at least six states of self stress with a well
defined set of symmetries related to rotational and translational representations
in the point group.

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Published by: Sean on May 12, 2013
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Symmetry and states of self stress intriangulated toroidal frames
P.W. FowlerSchool of Chemistry, University of ExeterStocker Road, Exeter EX4 4QD, UKS.D. GuestDepartment of Engineering, University of CambridgeTrumpington Street, Cambridge, CB2 1PZ, UKJanuary 15, 2002
Abstract
A symmetry extension of Maxwell’s rule for rigidity of frames shows thatevery fully triangulated torus has at least six states of self stress with a welldefined set of symmetries related to rotational and translational representa-tions in the point group. In contrast, in trivalent polyhedral toroidal frames,i.e. the duals of the deltahedra, the rigid body motions plus the mechanismsare at least equal in number to the bars, and their symmetry representationcontains that of a set of vector slides along the bars.
1 Introduction
Maxwell’s rule expresses a condition for the determinacy of a pin-jointedframe (Maxwell, 1864). If an unsupported, three-dimensional frame com-posed of rigid bars connected via frictionless joints is statically and kinemat-ically determinate, the number of bars
b
must be at least 3
 j
6, where
j
isthe number of joints. In general, the frame will support
s
states of self-stress(bar tensions in the absence of load) and
m
mechanisms (joint displacementswithout bar extension), where
s
m
=
b
3
 j
+ 6 (1)1
 
(Calladine, 1978). Recently, this algebraic formula has been shown (Fowlerand Guest, 2000) to be the scalar aspect of a symmetry version of Maxwell’srule,Γ(
s
)
Γ(
m
) = Γ(
b
)
Γ(
 j
)
Γ
+ Γ
+ Γ
R
(2)where Γ(
) is the reducible representation of the set
{
}
of bars, joints, mech-anisms etc. and Γ
, Γ
R
are the translational and rotational representations,all within the point group of the frame. All quantities in (2) can be computedby standard manipulations of the character table of the group (Atkins, Childand Phillips, 1970). Equation (2) is, in effect, a set of Maxwell conditions,each concerning an aspect of the symmetry defined by one of the irreduciblerepresentations of the point group, thus giving additional insight into theallowed stresses and motions of the frame.Maxwell (1870) pointed out a number of consequences of (1) for certainclasses of frameworks. In particular he showed that the number of states of self-stress must equal the number of mechanisms for a spherical deltahedron,and that a toroidal deltahedron must have at least six states of self-stress. Inthis paper, we extend these results by pointing out the consequences of (2)for the triangulated toroids, and their duals. It is proved that six states of self stress, of defined symmetry, are present in every fully triangulated toroidalframe. For their duals, the trivalent polyhedral frames of toroidal topology,mechanisms are characterised by number and symmetry using similar group-theoretical reasoning.
2 Spherical polyhedral frames
The key to the results in this paper is the symmetry counterpart of Euler’stheorem for polyhedra. Although the symmetry extension of Maxwell’s rulegiven in (2) is valid for all frames, extra information can be gleaned whenthe frame has a specific embedding; this Section will consider the examplewhen all vertices lie on a surface deformable to that of a sphere (i.e. implyingspherical topology but not a specific geometry). Section 3 will then examinethe case of toroidal frames.The scalar Euler theorem for a
spherical polyhedron 
connects the numbersof vertices, faces and edges by
v
+
=
e
+ 2
.
(3)The combination
v
e
+
is known as the Euler characteristic. For anorientable surface,
v
e
+
= 2
2
g
, where
g
is the genus (Stillwell, 1993).In the case of the sphere,
g
= 0 and
v
e
+
= 2.2
 
The symmetry extension of the Euler equation for
g
= 0 (Ceulemans andFowler, 1991) connects reducible representations associated with the threetypes of structural componentΓ(
v
) + Γ(
)
Γ
= Γ
(
e
) + Γ
0
+ Γ
(4)where Γ(
v
) and Γ(
) are
permutation representations 
of the sets of verticesand face centres and Γ
(
e
) is the reducible representation of a set of vectorsrunning along the edges. The one-dimensional representations Γ
0
and Γ
arerespectively the totally symmetric and the pseudoscalar representations inthe point group of the frame; Γ
0
has character +1 under all operations of thepoint group, whereas Γ
has character +1 under all proper and
1 under allimproper operations.Fully triangulated spherical polyhedra (i.e. spherical deltahedra) have
e
= 3
v
6, and the symmetry equivalent of this second counting relationis (Ceulemans and Fowler, 1991)Γ(
e
) = Γ(
v
)
Γ
Γ
Γ
R
(5)which, when applied to a polyhedral frame of bars (
b
e
) and joints (
 j
v
), shows that the states of self-stress and the mechanisms of a sphericaldeltahedral frame are equisymmetric, i.e.Γ(
s
) = Γ(
m
)
.
(6)The well known generic rigidity of the deltahedron (Graver, Servatius andServatius, 1993) implies that
s
and
m
must be equal in number; (6) furtherimplies a detailed match, symmetry by symmetry.A dual relation for trivalent polyhedral frames, i.e. those in which every joint connects three bars, is (Ceulemans and Fowler, 1991)Γ(
v
)
Γ
= Γ(
e
) + Γ
(
e
) (7)which implies that, in a spherical, trivalent, polyhedral frame, the represen-tations of the states of self-stress and the mechanisms differ byΓ(
s
)
Γ(
m
) = Γ
+ Γ
R
Γ
(
e
) (8)Equation (8) shows that such a frame will in general have at least 3
 j/
2
6mechanisms spanning the symmetries of inextensional ‘slides’ along the barsminus those of the six rigid-body motions. This division of internal coordi-nates into slides and stretches has been proposed as the basis for a treatmentof 
molecular 
vibrations (Ceulemans
et al.
, 2001). In the analogy betweenframes and molecules, bar extensions correspond to stretches, mechanismsto angle bends, twists and torsions, and states of self-stress to redundanciesin the internal-coordinate force field.3

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