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Upper Course of a River (Processes and Land Forms)

Upper Course of a River (Processes and Land Forms)

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Published by cgmalia
V-shaped valley, interlocking spur, waterfall, rapid & potholes
V-shaped valley, interlocking spur, waterfall, rapid & potholes

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Published by: cgmalia on Apr 09, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/31/2013

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RiversMain processes of river erosion in the upper course.
Erosion is the wearing away of the land. Thereare different types of erosion:
(i)
Hydraulic action: 
This process involves theforce of water against the bed and banks-Hydraulic power is high below waterfall andrapids where it will cause rocks to fragmentsespecially when joints and bedding planes,and lines of weakness are present.-Outside bend of river, Hydraulic action lead toundercutting and collapse of river banks toform cliffs
(ii)
 Abrasion/Corrasion: 
This is the process bywhich the bed and banks are worn down bythe rivers load. The river throws theseparticles against the bed and banks,sometimes at high velocityWhen active: River at bankfull/floodHow it looks like: The river appears brown,charged with sand and silt.
(iii)
 Attrition :
Material (the load) carried by theriver bump into each other and so are
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smoothed and broken down into smaller particles.
When river flows over bedrock the erosion of bedrock most effective by corrasion andresult in pot holes.
When a river flows over alluvial channelerosion is effective by hydraulic action.
(iv)
Corrosion
This is the chemical action of river water. The acids in the water slowly dissolvethe bed and the banks.-Most active on rocks that contain carbonatessuch as limestone and chalk and silicate suchas quartz.Erosion of river channel:
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1.
Lateral erosion :
It occurs when a river does not follow astraight path but meanders, swingingfrom side to side.
The strongest current flows around theoutside of the bend and hydraulic actionand corrosion cause the riverbanks tobe undermined and collapse.
It is most active where a river transportsa large load or during short-lived floodunder desert conditions.
Valley widening is due more toweathering and slope transport thanlateral erosion by rivers.2.Vertical erosion: 
Characteristic of fast-flowing rivers thatare transporting a large bedload of coarse, hard particles.
The particles abrade and potholecausing rapid lowering of river bed.
Such rivers tend to flow in deep, narrowgorges, as resistant rocks of the valleyslopes restrict weathering of slopeseither side.
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