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Community Participation in Isiolo District: Past Initiatives and Options for the Future

Community Participation in Isiolo District: Past Initiatives and Options for the Future

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Published by Martin Walsh
A critical examination by Martin Walsh of efforts to adapt local institutions to the needs of contemporary development in Isiolo District, Kenya. Citation: Walsh, M. T. 1992. Community Participation in Isiolo District: Past Initiatives and Options for the Future. Annex 4 in The Isiolo District Support Programme, report submitted by Masdar Ltd. to the Overseas Development Administration (ODA), London.
A critical examination by Martin Walsh of efforts to adapt local institutions to the needs of contemporary development in Isiolo District, Kenya. Citation: Walsh, M. T. 1992. Community Participation in Isiolo District: Past Initiatives and Options for the Future. Annex 4 in The Isiolo District Support Programme, report submitted by Masdar Ltd. to the Overseas Development Administration (ODA), London.

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Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Martin Walsh on Apr 09, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

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12/02/2010

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COMMUNITYI'ARTICIPATIONINISIOLODIS'I'RICT.PASTIMTIATIVESAND OHTIONS NORTIIE FTJTTJRE
4.14.24.34.44.54.6CONTENTS
IntroductionPast nitiativesTheRoleofNGOsandnternationalgenciesCommunityParticipationn theLDPOptionsortheFutureCommunityParticipationmd GenderNeedsPageNo.I24'5ll13
farttattalsbL992rGonmnltyParticlpationla Xsr.olo lltstr'l.otrPactInttiatl.vesand Optl.onefortheFuturefIArner4tnthc fg!.o1oDlstr.|.ot_suppertPro,rannela rcport suhltt;dbf,I,AIIDABtbo 3r{.ttgbOvcrgcaaDcvclopotAilol.nl,strBtlon.
 
4.1
ANNEX4COMMUNITYPARTICIPATIONINPASTIMTIATIVF^SANDOPTIONS
ISIOLODISTRICT:FORTITETUTI.JRE
IntroductionThis annexexamineshepast, presentandfunrreole of communityparticipationn thedevelopmentfIsioloDistria. Followinganntroductoryreamblesection.Ibelow),itis dividednto threemainparts.Section2 analyseshestrengthsndweaknessesfpast (andpresent)attemptso elicitcommunityparticipationnthedevelopmentrocess.Specialanentionsgiven(insection2.3) to theinitiativesakenorproposednder theIsioloLivestockDevelopmentrojectlLDP).Sectionisdevotedoa discussion fthe optionsfor ensuring ommunityarticipation hichshould eollowed pintheILDP'ssuccessor,theproposedsioloDistrict SupportProgrammeIDSP).Section4gives particularconsiderationothe strategicendereedsfwomenwhichweresomewhateglectedntheILDP) as hey ariseandwillbeaddressednthecontext f thisprogramme.4.1.1ComnrunityParticipationnPerspoctiveBeforeexaminingastandpresentattemptsoincorporateommunityparticipationntothedevelopmentrocessnIsiolo District, it mayhelpodefinemoreclearlywhatcommunityparticipationmeans,why itis important,andhow itcanbe(orhasbeen,nthe contextofotherdevelopmentrogrammes)utintopractice.The experience fthepastwenty ormore yearsofdevelopmentnterventions asmade tclear thattheparticipationflocalcommunitiesntheidentification,mplementation,operationndevaluationf theprojectswhichaffect hemconsiderablyncreaseshe chancethattheseprojectswill carry real benefitsandbesustainablenthelong term. Thefailuretoinvolventendedeneficiariesn theprojeacyclcs frequentlya recipefor failure. Forthisreason ommunityarticipations widely, though yno meansuniversally,ecognisedasessentialo the success fmanydifferentkindsof developmentnitiative.Although theimportanceofcommunityparticipationswidelyrecognised, here areconsiderableariationsnthewayinwhicht ismobilised. [n many casasommunityparticipationsprimarily dentifiedwithcommunity ontributionsinthetbrmoflabour,materialsorcash)otheimplementationf developmentrojects,especiallywhentheseinvolveheconstructionfbuildings,oads,r othernfrastructuralacilities. nKenyauchcontributionsreoneof theprimaryconnotationsf'Harambee',or self-help,n theocalcommunity.Wherecommunityarticipationsextendedo includeocalnvolvementnprojectplanning,operation nd evaluation,moreoftenthan not this sstilldoneon aprojectbyproject,orinterventionyintervention,asis.This isandhasbeen heprevalentracticenthecaseofsmall-scaleechnicalandotherin:erventionsponsoredy mmy NGOS(thought is notdifficulttofindprojectsn whichcommunityarficipationoesnotfeatureat all).Instancesof this can befoundhroughoutenya, nbothASAL andnon-ASALareassee,<rrexample,he overview fcommunityarticipationnitiative.sndifferentNGOprojectsn
 
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4.2
Machakosistrict narecentaperyKaluli1992)).Anexamplerom southernthiopia,amonghenorthernelatives ftheIsioloBoran,s theCAREBoranaRangelandsroject,whichhasocused ponwaternterventionsndechnical dvicengrainstorageivenbyextensiontaffworkingatvillage evel.Whilefieechnicalroject pproachsrelatively ommon,tis not easy ofind exarnplesfprojectsorprogr:rmmeswhich takeabroaderinstitutionalapproachto conrmunityparticipation.Thedevelopmentflocal(orlocallybased)nstitutionsoensure ommunityparticipationnallphasesftheplanningycles amuchmore ambitiousask, anddifficultforsmallNGOSo tacklealonen a meaningfirlay. Perhapshemost relevantexamplefan institutionalnterventionofthiskind isthat undertakennthecontextoftheWorld BanksponsoredouthernangelandsilotProject1988-1992),gainn BoranaRegionnsouthernEthiopia.In thisprojectservicecooperativesoperatingshopsandveterinary drugstores)were ormedonthebasisf traditionalBoranesourcemanagementnitsthemadda),albeitunitswhichhadongbeensedy thegovernmentor administrationndaxcollectionseeHogg1990orfurtherdetails).OneoftheprimaryobjectivesftheproposedDSPstopromotehenstitutionalisationfcommunityparticipationnd theparticipationfcommunitynstitutionsn theplanningprocqss,swelt asn theimplementationfspecificdevelopmentnterventions.The nextsectioneviewshepasthistoryof communityarticipationn IsioloDistrictand examinestheweaknessesnherentn existingnitiatives.Past nitiativesThe sectionswhichfollowanalyseast(andpresent)approachesoelicitingcommunityparticipationnthedevelopmentfIsioloDistrict. An analysisfgovernmentolicyandpracticesection.1)is followedby an examinationf theroleplayedbyNGOsand otherdonor agenciesnfosteringorinsomecasesisregarding)ommunityparticipation nthedistrict(section.2).Thefind andongest ection2.3)underhis headingooks at thestrengthsndweaknqssesfthenitiativesaken rproposednderheLDP.GovernmentPolicyandPracficeThe importancefcommunityarticipationn thedevelopmentrocesss widely recognisedby the GovernmentfKenya.ndeed, upportor theintegration fparticipatoryrocessesin developmentlanninghas increasedonsiderablyverthepastdecatfollowingtheformulationndongoing)mplementationf the Government'solicyofDistrictFocus orRuralDevelopment.eforeOris ommunityarticipationnddevelopmentere argelyseeninthecontext f"Harambee'andself-help,ncludingnitiativeshich were heparticularresponsibilityftheDepartmentf SocialServicesn theMinistry ofCultureandSocialServices.NowtheDepartmentf SocialServicesasmappeduta broaderolefor itselfin facilitatinghemplementationftheDistrictFocusolicyatocalevel. InIsioloDistrictpracticehasyettomatch he thmry,andneither he Department'sctivitiesnorpolicyimplementationngeneralhave comeclose to attainingheirstatedgoaloffull andmeaningfulommunityarticipationn development.
4.2.1

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