1. What are the main components of network? Write a detailed note on the advantages of networks.Answer
order to set up a home Ethernet or wireless network, you will need the componentslisted below. All of the components are used in both wired and wireless networks, exceptEthernet cable which is only used in wired networks. This section also gives an overviewof the components needed to set up different sized home networks.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
- The best means of connecting a computer to a network isthrough a Network Interface Card (NIC). A NIC will allow a computer to send and receiveelectrical or radio signals in a manner that other computers can understand. Most moderncomputers come with Ethernet NICs installed by default. Laptops usually even come with wirelessNICs. If your computer does not already have a NIC, you can purchase one from your localcomputer supply store. Before you buy a NIC, make sure you have decided whether you aregoing to create a wireless or Ethernet network.
- In order to connect more than two computers together, a device that distributes packets, or blocks of data, must be used. A hub is the most basic of these devices. When a computer connected to a network makes a request for data from another computer, that request will be sentto the hub. The hub will then send that request to every computer it is connected to, including theoriginating computer. Most of the computers on the network will ignore the request. The computer that the request is being sent to will accept the data packet and send out a reply packet. Thereply packet will then be sent to every computer by the hub. One problem with hubs is that theyoften cause collisions between packets. As a result, data is lost in transmission and must be re-sent.
- A switch is a device that distributes packets, or blocks of data, between computers in anetwork. Switches function in a similar fashion to hubs, but are much more efficient. A switch cansend a packet directly to a specific destination, instead of sending it to every computer in anetwork.
- A router is a device that joins two different networks together. Home networks usuallyemploy routers to connect to the Internet. The majority of routers contain a switch within them sothat all of the computers on a network can communicate.
- A modem is a device that allows you to connect to your Internet service provider andbrowse the Internet. Because modems only provide one IP address each, the best way to use ahigh-speed modem is to share its services among computers.
- To set up a wired network, Ethernet cables are needed that allow thetransmission of data from one networked device to another. Category 5 (Cat 5) cable is one of themost common types of Ethernet cable. When connecting computers to a network, one end of theCat 5 cable is plugged into the computer’s NIC and the other is plugged into the hub, switch, or router.
================================================================ADVANTAGES OF NETWORKS
Networks offer a quick and easy way to share files directly. Instead of using a diskor USB key to carry files from one computer or office to another, you can share files directly usinga network.
Software Cost and Management
: Many popular software products are available for networks ata substantial savings in comparison to buying individually licensed copied for all of your computers. You can also load software on only the file server which saves time compared toinstalling and tracking files on independent computers. Upgrades are also easier becausechanges only have to be done once on the file server instead of on individual workstations.
: Specific directories can be password protected to limit access to authorized users.Also, files and programs on a network can be designated as "copy inhibit" so you don’t have toworry about the illegal copying of programs.