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Published by: gkmishra2001 at gmail.com on Apr 09, 2009
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1. What are the main components of network? Write a detailed note on the advantages of networks.Answer 
order to set up a home Ethernet or wireless network, you will need the componentslisted below. All of the components are used in both wired and wireless networks, exceptEthernet cable which is only used in wired networks. This section also gives an overviewof the components needed to set up different sized home networks.
Network Interface Card (NIC)
- The best means of connecting a computer to a network isthrough a Network Interface Card (NIC). A NIC will allow a computer to send and receiveelectrical or radio signals in a manner that other computers can understand. Most moderncomputers come with Ethernet NICs installed by default. Laptops usually even come with wirelessNICs. If your computer does not already have a NIC, you can purchase one from your localcomputer supply store. Before you buy a NIC, make sure you have decided whether you aregoing to create a wireless or Ethernet network.
- In order to connect more than two computers together, a device that distributes packets, or blocks of data, must be used. A hub is the most basic of these devices. When a computer connected to a network makes a request for data from another computer, that request will be sentto the hub. The hub will then send that request to every computer it is connected to, including theoriginating computer. Most of the computers on the network will ignore the request. The computer that the request is being sent to will accept the data packet and send out a reply packet. Thereply packet will then be sent to every computer by the hub. One problem with hubs is that theyoften cause collisions between packets. As a result, data is lost in transmission and must be re-sent.
- A switch is a device that distributes packets, or blocks of data, between computers in anetwork. Switches function in a similar fashion to hubs, but are much more efficient. A switch cansend a packet directly to a specific destination, instead of sending it to every computer in anetwork.
- A router is a device that joins two different networks together. Home networks usuallyemploy routers to connect to the Internet. The majority of routers contain a switch within them sothat all of the computers on a network can communicate.
- A modem is a device that allows you to connect to your Internet service provider andbrowse the Internet. Because modems only provide one IP address each, the best way to use ahigh-speed modem is to share its services among computers.
Ethernet Cable
- To set up a wired network, Ethernet cables are needed that allow thetransmission of data from one networked device to another. Category 5 (Cat 5) cable is one of themost common types of Ethernet cable. When connecting computers to a network, one end of theCat 5 cable is plugged into the computer’s NIC and the other is plugged into the hub, switch, or router.
================================================================ADVANTAGES OF NETWORKS
File Sharing:
Networks offer a quick and easy way to share files directly. Instead of using a diskor USB key to carry files from one computer or office to another, you can share files directly usinga network.
Software Cost and Management
: Many popular software products are available for networks ata substantial savings in comparison to buying individually licensed copied for all of your computers. You can also load software on only the file server which saves time compared toinstalling and tracking files on independent computers. Upgrades are also easier becausechanges only have to be done once on the file server instead of on individual workstations.
: Specific directories can be password protected to limit access to authorized users.Also, files and programs on a network can be designated as "copy inhibit" so you don’t have toworry about the illegal copying of programs.
Resource Sharing
: All computers in the network can share resources such as printers, faxmachines, modems, and scanners.
Even outside of the internet, those on the network can communicate with eachother via electronic mail over the network system. When connected to the internet, network userscan communicate with people around the world via the network.
Flexible Access
: Networks allow their users to access files from computers throughout thenetwork. This means that a user can begin work on a project on one computer and finish up onanother. Multiple users can also collaborate on the same project through the network.
Workgroup Computing
: Workgroup software like Microsoft BackOffice enables many users tocontribute to a document concurrently. This allows for interactive teamwork.################################################################
2. What are the main features of an MIS? Discuss the main reasons for success and failureof an information system?Answer 
The primary features of MIS include:? permissions-based data entry? Strategic plans, measures, and evaluations? Custom-built reports with viewing permissions? Server configured to protect data privacy
==============================================================THE SUCCESS/ FAILURE OF MIS DEPENDS ON TWO FACTORS.
1.MIS developers-done a through needs analysis for information requirements.-tailor the information system for the organization requirements.-user friendly.2.USERS-all managers/ staff are well trained to use the information.-the benefits are evaluated.########################################################
3. Visit some of the organizations to identify the information systems used for better management. Suggest the ways and means for the improvement.
information systems used for better management.Applications of MIS
With computers being as ubiquitous as they are today, there's hardly any large business thatdoes not rely extensively on their IT systems.However, there are several specific fields in which MIS has become invaluable.*
Strategy Support 
While computers cannot create business strategies by themselves they can assist managementin understanding the effects of their strategies, and help enable effective decision-making.MIS systems can be used to transform datainto information useful for decision making.
Computers can provide financial statements and performance reports to assist in the planning,monitoring and implementation of strategy.MIS systems provide a valuable function in that they can collate into coherent reportsunmanageable volumes of data that would otherwise be broadly useless to decision makers. Bystudying these reports decision-makers can identify patterns and trends that would haveremained unseen if the raw data were consulted manually.MIS systems can also use these raw data to run simulations – hypothetical scenarios that answer a range of ‘what if’ questions regarding alterations in strategy. For instance, MIS systems canprovide predictions about the effect on sales that an alteration in price would have on a product.These Decision Support Systems (DSS) enable more informed decision making within anenterprise than would be possible without MIS systems.
Data Processing 
Not only do MIS systems allow for the collation of vast amounts of business data, but they alsoprovide a valuable time saving benefit to the workforce. Where in the past business informationhad to be manually processed for filing and analysis it can now be entered quickly and easily ontoa computer by a data processor, allowing for faster decision making and quicker reflexes for theenterprise as a whole.
Management by Objectives
While MIS systems are extremely useful in generating statistical reports and data analysis theycan also be of use as a Management by Objectives (MBO) tool.MBO is a management process by which managers and subordinates agree upon a series of objectives for the subordinate to attempt to achieve within a set time frame. Objectives are setusing the SMART ratio: that is, objectives should be Specific, Measurable, Agreed, Realistic andTime-Specific.The aim of these objectives is to provide a set of key performance indicators by which anenterprise can judge the performance of an employee or project. The success of any MBOobjective depends upon the continuous tracking of progress.In tracking this performance it can be extremely useful to make use of an MIS system. Since allSMART objectives are by definition measurable they can be tracked through the generation of management reports to be analysed by decision-makers.
Benefits of MIS
The field of MIS can deliver a great many benefits to enterprises in every industry. Expertorganisations such as the Institute of MIS along with peer reviewed journals such as MISQuarterly continue to find and report new ways to use MIS to achieve business objectives.
Core Competencies
Every market leading enterprise will have at least one core competency – that is, a function theyperform better than their competition. By building an exceptional management information systeminto the enterprise it is possible to push out ahead of the competition. MIS systems provide thetools necessary to gain a better understanding of the market as well as a better understanding of the enterprise itself.
Enhance Supply Chain Management
Improved reporting of business processes leads inevitably to a more streamlined production

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