(5) initialization and termination errors. Unlike white-box testing, which isperformed early in the testing process.By applying black-box techniques, we derive a set of test cases that satisfy thefollowing criteria :(1) test cases that reduce, by a count that is greater than one, the number of additional test cases that must be designed to achieve reasonable testing and(2) test cases that tell us something about the presence or absence of classes of errors, rather than an error associated only with the specific test at hand.*[Diagram in Nirali text book]Q2.1.PHASES OF SOFTWARE PROJECT PLANNING:?2.FACTORS RESPONSIBLE FOR SOFTWARE PROJECT FAILURE:In order to manage a successful software project, we must understand whatcan go wrong (so that problems can be avoided) and how to do it right.
Software people don’t understand their customer’s needs.
The product scope is poorly defined.
Changes are managed poorly.
The chosen technology changes.
Business needs change [or are ill-defined].
Deadlines are unrealistic.
Users are resistant.
Sponsorship is lost [or was never properly obtained].
The project team lacks people with appropriate skills.
Managers [and practitioners] avoid best practices and lessons learned.3. ALPHA AND BETA TESTING:-1.It is virtually impossible for a software developer to foresee how thecustomer will really use a program. Instructions for use may bemisinterpreted; strange combinations of data may be regularly used;output that seemed clear to the tester may be unintelligible to a user inthe field.2.When custom software is built for one customer, a series of
are conducted to enable the customer to validate all requirements.3. If software is developed as a product to be used by many customers, it isimpractical to perform formal acceptance tests with each one. Mostsoftware product builders use a process called alpha and beta testing touncover errors that only the end-user seems able to find.4. The
is conducted at the developer's site by a customer. Thesoftware is used in a natural setting with the developer "looking over theshoulder" of the user and recording errors and usage problems. Alphatests are conducted in a controlled environment.5. The
is conducted at one or more customer sites by the end-userof the software. Unlike alpha testing, the developer is generally notpresent. Therefore, the beta test is a live" application of the software in anenvironment that cannot be controlled by the developer.