develop new mimics (pictures), add/delete/save new pictures, define mimic background, importother graphics files, create & save in a user defined symbol library graphical objects (elements)plus other functions as required to build screens (pictures).Programming facility: it is provided to fulfil the user's special requirements. This provisionshould allow the user to add to the functionality of his/her interface, manipulate files, performcomplex mathematical & string operations and to construct simple control sequences usinglogical decisions. It may, also, be used in conjunction with event driven, cyclic or scheduledactions to further increase the capability of the application.Shell-like application: it is used to manage the display of the windows having the pictures,trends, elements (objects) properties & tables and other applications within the Workstationenvironment. It allows the user to control the position and location of the opened windows in agraphical environment. It may also provide the provision for the operator to build custom menus.
The remote terminal units:
they are the devices that accept digital, analog and counter inputs andprovide digital and analog output. The inputs to the RTU are the indications/status (digital-on/off, closed/tripped,..etc), the values (analog-measurands & levels) and pulses of the fielddevices i.e. the information to be monitored and reported to the master computer. To effectcontrol on the remote devices, the analog & discrete output of the RTU are connected to thepertinent devices/equipment. Discrete output is used to drive an external relay, to operate acircuit breaker (closing it or tripping it), dropping a section of the feeder by opening a polemounted switch or a a pad-mounted switchgear switch, to disconnect a service, to switch off amotor and other similar applications. Analog output are used to remotely control devices thatrequires an increment adjustment or a variable set point for example opening/closing a valve,controlling a tap changer,...etc. If the RTU is intelligent, it can be programmed to make certaindecisions instead of sending the information to the master computer and wait for the instructionto come back. Such devices could be considered as upgraded to the controller level. The RTUrequires a power supply, has several interfaces & multiple ports with the protocol selectable on aper-port basis. The RTU may also have a microprocessor, RAM, real time clock, watchdogtimer, LED indicators, internal diagnostics routines, fiberoptic interface and an internal (built-in)modem.
The communication link:
it can be any or a combination of any of the following: leased lines,dial up lines, cellular circuits or VHF-UHF radio. Leased lines are reliable & require less initialinvestment in equipment. It is used when data polled from the remote sites is required at thecontrol station continuously in real time. The dial up lines are used when the information at theremote sites are required less often. The investment in equipment is low. The modems used arethe same as those used with personal computers. The cellular circuits are similar to the dial-upexcept special modems & telephones are required at the remote sites (to be connected to theRTUs). VHF-UHF radio requires a transmitter-receiver & antenna for each site. Distances arelimited to line-of-site from antenna to antenna. Repeaters may be required depending on therange and the attenuation level. The range is function of RF power (2 to 5 watts for narrow band& 1 watt for spread spectrum), the receiver sensitivity, the frequency selected. The 3 frequencyranges (bands) are 150 to 170 MHZ (VHF), 450 to 470 MHZ (UHF) & the 900 MHZ. The areaof coverage varies due to terrain, antenna height, frequency band & vegetation. The spreadspectrum uses one of three methods to spread the data signal: slow hoppers (frequency hopping),fast frequency hoppers and direct sequence.