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Infographic: Making America smarter, stronger, and younger

Infographic: Making America smarter, stronger, and younger

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Published by: Deloitte University Press on May 13, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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02/15/2014

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Issues by the Numbers
How immigration is shapingthe United States
May 2013
Making aMerica sMarter,stronger, and younger
BALANCING AGEDISTRIBUTION
Over 66%
 
of H-1B petitions approved in 2011were for workers between
25–34 years old25%
 
increase in proportion of20-44 year olds in the United Statesdue to immigration.
This translates into moreworkers supporting thegrowing retiree population.
FILLING A GROWING NEEDFOR LOW-SKILLED LABOR
Fastest-growth occupations in the next 10years require little formal education: home andpersonal care aides and retail and food serviceworkers.These are enabling occupations that arecomplementary to other workers in theeconomy, particularly the high-skilled.As the US native-born population continues togain in education attainment, immigrants willbe critical in filling jobs requiring less formaleducation.
FILLING A GROWING NEED FOR LOW-SKILLED LABOR
Fastest-growth occupations in the next 10years require little formal education: home andpersonal care aides and retail and food serviceworkers.These are enabling occupations that arecomplementary to other workers in theeconomy, particularly the high-skilled.As the US native-born population continues togain in education attainment, immigrants willbe critical in filling jobs requiring less formaleducation.
JOB CREATORS
1
24%
 
of engineering andtechnology companies foundedbetween 2006 and 2012 had at leastone foreign-born founder.
(Silicon Valley = 43.9%)
In 2012, these companies wereresponsible for approximately:
560,000
jobs
$63 billion
in sales
JOB CREATORS
1
24%
 
of engineering andtechnology companies foundedbetween 2006 and 2012 had at leastone foreign-born founder.
(Silicon Valley = 43.9%)
In 2012, these companies wereresponsible for approximately:
560,000
jobs
$63 billion
in sales
INNOVATION = PROSPERITY
Having workers with advanced training in science, technology,engineering, and math (STEM) fields is key to fostering innovation.
 
FOOD SECURITY IS ECONOMICSECURITY
71%
of USfarm workersare foreign-born.
(50% of these workersare undocumented)
58%
 of H-1B workers hold amaster’s degree or higher.
36%
of STEM-related doctoral graduatesin the United States in 2011 heldtemporary visas.
50%
of the PhDs working inengineering, mathematics, andcomputer science occupations inthe United States are foreign-born.
99%
of all H-1B workershave at least a bachelor’s degree.
Graphic: Deloitte University Press | dupress.com1. Vivek Wadhwa, AnnaLee Saxenian, and F. Daniel Siciliano, “America’s New Immigrant Entrepreneurs: Then and Now,” The Kauman Foundation, October 2012.
 
How immigration is shapingthe United States
W
ith
immigration reorm high on theUS Congress and administration’sagenda, it is important that the discussionbe inormed by an understanding o the rolethat immigration currently plays in the USeconomy and that adequate thought is given towhat the United States’ uture needs will be.Te United States has historically been viewed as a meritocracy graced with abundantnatural resources and a tolerance or diver-sity, making it a magnet or people looking toimprove their economic prospects regardless o their origins. Beginning with those who estab-lished the rst successul permanent settle-ment at Jamestown in 1607, various waves o immigrants rom around the world have cometo this country to build new lives or them-selves and their amilies. Te United Stateshas greatly beneted rom each generation o new arrivals. oday, immigrants to the UnitedStates contribute needed advanced technicalskills, augment the native-born workorce insectors such as agriculture, generate entirelnew businesses, and help balance the UnitedStates’ age distribution in the ace o a largeretiring baby boom generation.
Our immigrant nation
Aer alling to an all-time low o under5 percent in 1970, the oreign-born popula-tion o the United States rose steadily overthe intervening years and has remained airly steady between 12 percent and 13 percent o the total population over the last ew years.
1
O those oreign born, 45 percent, or 18 million,are naturalized US citizens, and the other 55percent, or 22 million, are non-citizens—acombination o legal permanent residents,holders o temporary visas, and those hereillegally.
2
Current estimates place the size o theillegal or undocumented population at approx-imately 11 million, or hal o the oreign-born population.
3
 Compared to the other industrializednations, the United States is not an outlierin terms o having a substantial oreign-born population. Rather, it is just below themedian (gure 1). Where the United Statesdoes dier signicantly is in the category o migrants admitted. Seventy-our percent o new migrants to the United States are grantedimmigration status on the basis o amily preerence, and only 6 percent are grantedpermanent entry on work-related visas. In theEuropean Union, excluding the “ree move-ment” ows allowed intra-EU, work-related visas account or 40 percent o immigration.
4
Te potential competitive advantage tothe United States bestowed by immigrationderives, in part, rom dierences between thenative-born and the oreign-born popula-tions—dierences that cause immigration tomake the United States smarter, stronger, andyounger than it otherwise would be.
Smarter
Having workers with advanced training inscience, technology, engineering, and math(SEM) is key to ostering innovation withinnational borders. US research universities arehighly respected or their ability to provideworld-class advanced SEM education, butmany o those they educate are only in theUnited States temporarily. Overall, 36 percent
How immigration is shaping the United States
1

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