Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Look up keyword
Like this
3Activity
0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Informal Sector Apprenticeship in Mombasa and Dar es Salaam

Informal Sector Apprenticeship in Mombasa and Dar es Salaam

Ratings:

5.0

(1)
|Views: 352|Likes:
Published by Martin Walsh
The text (without appendices) of a comparative study of informal sector apprenticeship in Kenya and Tanzania, written by Martin Walsh.
Citation: Walsh, M. T. (ed.) 1991. Informal Sector Apprenticeship in Mombasa and Dar es Salaam. Report to the ILO SDSR Project (Skill Development for Self Reliance), Nairobi.
The text (without appendices) of a comparative study of informal sector apprenticeship in Kenya and Tanzania, written by Martin Walsh.
Citation: Walsh, M. T. (ed.) 1991. Informal Sector Apprenticeship in Mombasa and Dar es Salaam. Report to the ILO SDSR Project (Skill Development for Self Reliance), Nairobi.

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Martin Walsh on Apr 10, 2009
Copyright:Traditional Copyright: All rights reserved

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

01/31/2013

pdf

text

original

 
rNFOB}IALSECTOEAPPBEHTICESHTP
INltoltBASAAI{I}IIABESSiAr-AAI'{
(draft)a studybytheInternationalLabourOrganisationSkitlDevelopmentfor SeIfRelianceProjectNairobiOctober1991ILO/SDSRProjectPOBOX60598Nai robiKENYA
 
ExecutiveSummaryrnforrnal-sectorApprenticeshipinMombasaandDar essalaama studybythe ILOISDSRProjectNairobi,October1991Thisreportpresentstheprincipalfindingsof a studyby theILOr/SDSR Projectofinforrnalsectorapprenticeshipinl'lombasa(Kenya)andDar esSalaam(Tanzanial.Thestudyis basedprirnarilyuponthe resultsoftwoparallelsurveysconductedinearly1991,supplementedby informalinterviewsandinformationderivedfromthe availableliterature.Eight enterpriseactivitieswerechosenfor studyin eachIocation, sevenofthemshared bybothsurveys.Thesurveyresultsindicatedconsiderablevariati-onbetweenthesedifferentactivities,suggestingthatprogrammesof assistanceshouldbesimilarlysensitiveandbegin witha subsectoralapproach.onemajoraxis of variationwasin womentsparticipationasbothentrepreneLlrsandapprentices.In someofthesurveyedactivities,especiallyinproductionandmanufacturing,womentsparticipationwasnegligibleorevennon-existent.IVomenntheurbaninformalsector typicallyconcentratein casualemploymentand/ortradeandservice activitieswithlower skillrequi-rements.As a resulttheyare underrepresentedin existingapprenticeshipsystemsand needtobe specificallytargetedin assistance programmes.Overandabovethe variationbetweendifferententerpriseactivitiesandwomen's participationinthese,thesurveysrevealeda significantpatternofsirnilaritiesand contrastsbetweenMombasaandDar es Salaam.Thesimilaritiesstemfromthe factthattheyareboth majorports,separatedbya relativelyshortstretchofcoastline,andas aresultsharinga numberofbasicsocial-andeconomicfeaturesincommon.Thecontrastsderivefromthedifferentpoliciespursuedby thegovernmentsof KenyaandTanzaniasincethelate 1960s, whenTanzaniaadoptedstatesocialismasitspoliticarandeconomicphilosophy.Thegrowthoflegitimateprivateenterpri-seandtheproductiveinformalsectorin DaresSal-aamwerestuntedbyrepressivegovernmentpolicies,theimpositionofa harshregulatoryenvironmentandtheircorollary,deepeconomicrecessj-on.ManystrbsectorsinDares SaIaamhaveonlybegun torecoverandgrowinrecentyears,folrowingtheprocessof economicliberalisationinitiatedinthe mid1980s.Bfrcontrast'theinforrnalsectorinMombasahasenjoyeda muchmoregradualandunbrokenpatternofgrowthovertheyears.Asa resultit ispossibletoplotMombasaandDar esSalaamaLdifferentpointson ahypotheticalline ofdevelopmentwherebytheIatterismoving inthe directionofthe former.Thispatternofsinilaritj-esandcontrastsisevidentthroughoutthe surveyresultsandhas shapedthe basicfeaturesofapprenticeshipinbothIocations.As elservhereinEast Africa,apprenticeshipisnot tire well-defi-nedinstitutionthat weknow,for exampre,from westAfrica.rtsboundariesarevague,anditblendsimperceptibly-intoon-the-jobtrainingofunpaidor low-paidworkers.At thesame time,itisnotdifficulttorecogniseapprentieeshipin a numberof formsrangingfromthe embryonictothe morefully developed,accordingtolocationandparticularenterprise activity
 
The reasonforthissituationisthat recruitment toemploymentand skiII acquisition inthe informal sector in East Africa remainsvery muchembedded in and dependent upon traditional-socialnetworksand obligations. Manyapprenticesshareclosesocial-tieswith their entrepreneursas relatives,friendsand/or members ofthe sameethnicgroup.This is moreso in DaresSalaamthanMombasa,and more so insomeenterprise activities(often thosewithlowertechnical reqtiirements)thanothers.Entrepreneurs inMombasahave had longer andmore opportunity to free themselvesfromtraditional obligations,though the recruitment of informalsectortrainees is stillveryfarfrombeing determinedprimarilyby marketforces. Informalsector trainingin East Africais onlybeginningto developthe features which are associatedwithapprenticeshipasa f ully-f ledged institutior-r. Apprenticeshipfees,for examplel 8.r€rarelypaidin eitherMombasaor Dar es
SaIaam.
Likewisewrittencontracts coverinE the terms ofapprenticeshipare rarely drawn upand signed:and in many casesevenverbal agreements are not made. In sucir cases existing socialtiesbetweenthe entrepreneurs and their traineesareconsideredsufficientto cover their mutua]obligationsand risks.Apprenticeship of thiskind is b,v no meansamarginalactivity,butplaysaveryimportantrole in the informal sector aswellasin thewider economy(byabsorbing and trainingthe unemployed,andin somecases evenpreparingthem foremployment in theformalsector).The incidence of apprenticeship varj-es considerablybetween differententerprise activities: overall, however, itsnumericalsignificance isnot in doubt.Anong thesampledactivitiesitwashighestin motor vehicle repair: apprenticemechanics comprised43% and 45%ofthe totalworkforceinMombasaandDar es SaIaamrespectively. The surve-v resultsalsoil-lustratethe irnportanceof apprenticeship relative to otherforms oftraining, includingthe courses ofvocationaland technicaltrainingoffered by different formal institutions. Asmight beexpected,the latter aremore readily available in Mombasa than inDares Salaam. Inbothplacesapprenticeship and formal trainingareoften combined in thecareers of individual entrepreneurs(aswell astheir apprentices). Theirrelativeimportance,actual andperceived,varies considerably between enterprise activities. Mostsignificant,perh&psristhefact that inforrnal sectorapprenticeshipcanhold its own against forrnal training, and inmany instancesis describedas more useful(asit is,forexample,bycar mechanicsin Mombasa and metalworkers in Dar es Salaam).The surveyresults also suggest that informalsectorapprenticeshipcould be even more important, bothquantitativelyandqualitatively,thanit is atpresent.First, consider theefficiency ofapprenticeship as a form of training. Judgingby thelengthof tirnewhich it takes entrepreneurs to traintheirapprentices,the systemof training is much more efficient(formostactivities)in l'lombasa than it is in Dar es Salaam.Thereasonfor this is Iinkedtothebroadpatternof contrasts alreadyoutlinedabove.In Dares Salaam it is more Iikely thatapprenticeshave beentaken on for reasons,both socialandeconomic,which donotrelateprinarilyto the needsandrequirementsof the enterprise itself. It is also clear thatthemeansand methodsof training apprentices have had less timetodevelopin Dar es Salaamthantheyhavein Mombasa. Asa result

Activity (3)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
aondoro liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
scribd
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->