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Elemente de arhitectură a sistemelor de calcul şi operare

Elemente de arhitectură a sistemelor de calcul şi operare

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Published by: Cătălin on Apr 10, 2009
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05/11/2014

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Cuprins 
Prefa
ţă
.................................................................................................................. 71. Calculatorul
ş
i sistemul de operare. No
ţ
iuni introductive .................... 9
1.1. Introducere ............................................................................................................................
9
1.2. No
ţ
iuni preliminarii ...............................................................................................................
10
1.3. Principalele componente ale unui sistem de operare ....................................................
13
1.4. Resursele fizice ale unui sistem de calcul .......................................................................
15
1.4.1. Memoria ....................................................................................................................
15
1.4.2. Microprocesorul ......................................................................................................
18
1.4.3. Dispozitive de stocare (memoria secundar
ă
) ...................................................
19
1.4.4. Dispozitive de intrare – ie
ş
ire .............................................................................
19
1.5. Modalitatea general
ă
de func
ţ
ionare a unui calculator ...............................................
21
1.6. Software .................................................................................................................................
22
1.7. Limbaje de nivel înalt
ş
i de nivel jos. Instruc
ţ
iuni ........................................................
23
1.8. Compilatoare
ş
i asambloare ................................................................................................
24
1.9. Editarea de leg
ă
turi .............................................................................................................
25
1.10. Interpretoare ......................................................................................................................
26
1.11. Monoprocesare
ş
i multiprocesare. Defini
ţ
ii ..................................................................
27
1.12. Rezumat .................................................................................................................................
292. Microprocesorul ............................................................................................. 30
2.1. Microprocesorul, componenta principal
ă
a calculatorului ............................................
30
2.2. Ciclul fetch decode execute ........................................................................................
33
2.3. Familia de procesoare X86 ................................................................................................
47
2.3.1. Microprocesorul 80286 (286) .............................................................................
49
2.3.2. Microprocesorul 80386 (386) ............................................................................
51
2.3.3. Microprocesorul 80486 (486) ............................................................................
53
2.3.4. Microprocesorul Pentium ......................................................................................
54
 
2.3.5. Microprocesorul Pentium MMX ..........................................................................
58
2.3.6. Microprocesorul Pentium II („Klamath”) ..........................................................
59
2.3.7. Microprocesorul Pentium III ..............................................................................
60
2.3.8. Microprocesorul Pentium 4 ..................................................................................
60
2.4. Coprocesoare .........................................................................................................................
61
2.4.1. Coprocesoare matematice ....................................................................................
61
2.4.2. Tipuri de date admise de c
ă
tre un coprocesor matematic ..........................
63
2.4.3. Procesoare DSP (Digital Signal Processor) ......................................................
65
2.5. Extensii MMX ........................................................................................................................
66
2.6. Elemente de arhitectur
ă
intern
ă
a procesorului ..........................................................
67
2.6.1. Registrele .................................................................................................................
67
2.6.2. Unitatea de interfa
ţă
cu magistrala .................................................................
68
2.6.3. Unitatea de control ...............................................................................................
68
2.6.4. Unitatea de execu
ţ
ie a întregilor ......................................................................
69
2.6.5. Unitatea de prelucrare în virgul
ă
mobil
ă
..........................................................
69
2.6.6. Memoria cache de nivel 1
ş
i controller-ul de memorie cache ......................
70
2.7. Elemente de arhitectur
ă
extern
ă
a microprocesorului ...............................................
71
2.7.1. Procesorul
ş
i magistralele de memorie ..............................................................
71
2.7.2. Magistrala sistem – func
ţ
ii
ş
i caracteristici ...................................................
72
2.7.3. Magistralele procesorului
ş
i magistralele de memorie .................................
73
2.7.4. Magistrala de date dintre procesor
ş
i memorie .............................................
73
2.7.5. Magistrala de adrese dintre procesor
ş
i memorie .........................................
74
2.7.6. M
ă
rimea magistralei de adrese pentru diverse procesoare .......................
75
2.8. Ceasuri de sistem .................................................................................................................
75
2.9. No
ţ
iuni de multiprocesare ..................................................................................................
77
2.10. Func
ţ
ionarea
ş
i operarea întreruperilor .......................................................................
78
2.10.1. Generalit
ăţ
i referitoare la întreruperi ...........................................................
78
2.10.2. Controllere de întreruperi .................................................................................
81
2.10.3. Linii IRQ
ş
i magistrala de sistem .....................................................................
82
2.10.4. Întreruperi nemascabile .....................................................................................
83

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