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Some Approximate Solutions for Shallow Tunnels

# Some Approximate Solutions for Shallow Tunnels

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Tunnelling and Tunnel Mechanics
Tunnelling and Tunnel Mechanics

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05/28/2013

16Some approximate solutions for shallow tunnels
In shallow tunnels the neglection of vertical stress increase with depth dueto gravity is not justiﬁed. Thus, the solutions presented so far based on hy-drostatic primary stress are not applicable. In this section some approximatesolutions for shallow tunnels are presented.
16.1 Janssen’s silo equation
In silos (i.e. vessels ﬁlled with granular material) the vertical stress does notincrease linearly with depth. Silos are, therefore, archetypes for arching. Theequation of
Janssen
(1895)
1
is used for the design of silos. To derive it, weconsider a slim silo with a circular cross section (Fig. 16.1).
Fig. 16.1.
To the derivation of the equation of
Janssen
.
Upon a disk with the radius
r
and the thickness
dz
act the own weight
πr
2
γdz
,the stress forces
σπr
2
and
(
σ
+
)
πr
2
, as well as the shear force
τ
2
πrdz
1
Janssen, H.A. (1895), Versuche ¨uber Getreidedruck in Silozellen.
Zeitschrift desVereins deutscher Ingenieure
, Band 39, No. 35

316 16 Some approximate solutions for shallow tunnels
due to wall friction
τ
. The latter is proportional to the horizontal stress
σ
,
τ
=
μσ
, and
σ
is assumed proportional to the vertical stress
σ
, i.e.
σ
=
0
σ
.
0
is the earth-pressure-at-rest-coeﬃcient
2
, and
μ
is the wall frictioncoeﬃcient. Equilibrium requires that the sum of these forces vanishes. In thisway one obtains the diﬀerential equation
dz
=
γ
2
0
μrσ .
With the boundary condition
σ
(
z
= 0)
!
= 0 it has the solution
σ
(
z
) =
γr
2
0
μ
(1
e
2
K
0
μz/r
)
.
(16.1)Thus, the vertical stress cannot increase above the value
γr/
(2
0
μ
).This derivation of Equ. 16.1 also applies if the silo has no circular cross section.Then,
r
is the so-called hydraulic radius of the cross section:
A
=
r
2
,
where
A
is the area and
the circumference of the cross section.If the adhesion
c
a
acts between silo wall and granulate (soil), then Equ. 16.1is to be modiﬁed as follows:
σ
(
z
) =(
γ
2
c
a
/r
)
r
2
0
μ
(1
e
2
K
0
μz/r
)
.
q
per unit area, then theboundary condition at
z
σ
(
z
= 0) =
q
. This leads to the equation
σ
(
z
) =(
γ
2
c
a
/r
)
r
2
0
μ
1
e
2
K
0
μz/r
+
qe
2
K
0
μz/r
.
(16.3)The theory of
Janssen
points out that the granulate stored in silos ’hangs’partly at the silo walls by friction. This results in high vertical stresses in thesilo walls, which may buckle. The mobilization of the shear stresses on thewall presupposes suﬃciently large relative displacements between granulateand silo wall. If the granulate is moved upwards, the the sign of wall shearstress is reversed. Equation 16.1 then has to be replaced by
σ
(
z
) =
γr
2
0
μ
(
e
2
K
0
μz/r
1)
.
Janssen’
s equation is often used to assess arching above tunnels:
2
according to
Jaky
is
0
1
sin
ϕ

16.1 Janssen’s silo equation 317
1.
Terzaghi
regarded the range ABCD represented in Fig. 16.2 as silo,
3
with the width
b
(for the plane deformation considered here the hydraulicradius is
r
=
b
), on the lower edge BC of which acts the pressure
p
.
4
Hethus obtained the following equation for the load
p
acting upon the roof of a tunnel with rectangular cross section:
p
=(
γ
2
c/b
)
b
2
tan
ϕ
1
e
2
Kh
tan
ϕ/b
(16.4)
Fig. 16.2.
To the derivation of the equation of
Terzaghi
.
2. To estimate the pressure needed for the support of the tunnel face (e.g.of a slurry shield),
Janssen
’s equation is used. The assessment of facestability is often accomplished following a collapse mechanism originallyproposed by
Horn
(Fig. 16.3).
5
To take into account the 3D-character of the collapse mechanism, the front ABCD of the sliding wedge is taken of equal area as the one of the tunnel cross section. On the sides BDI andACJ is set cohesion and friction (in accordance with the geostatic stressdistribution
σ
x
=
Kγz
). The vertical force
is computed according tothe silo formula. The necessary support force
is determined by equilib-rium consideration of the sliding wedge, whereby the inclination angle
ϑ
isvaried until
becomes maximum. From the consideration of the relativedisplacements (Fig. 16.3,c) it follows that at the sliding wedge acts also ahorizontal force
, which is (erroneously!) omitted by most authors.
6
The
3
The delimitation by 45
+
ϕ/
2 inclined lines is not clear.
4
K.Sz´echy, Tunnelbau, Springer-Verlag, Wien, 1969.
5
J.Holzh¨auser, Problematik der Standsicherheit der Ortsbrust beim TBM-Vortrieb im Betriebszustand Druckluftst¨utzung, Mitteilungen des Institutes und derVersuchsanstalt f¨ur Geotechnik der TU Darmstadt, Heft
52
, 2000,49-62
6
P.A. Vermeer et al., Ortsbruststabilit¨at von Tunnelbauwerken am Beispiel desRennsteig Tunnels, 2. Kolloquium ’Bauen in Boden und Fels’, TA Esslingen, Januar2000