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Manufacturing Process of Tea....

Manufacturing Process of Tea....

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Published by: krishan kumar Agarwal on Apr 11, 2009
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ASSIGNMENT OFFOOD BEVERAGES
Submitted to-:
Er. Ashutosh Updhayay
(Depaertmaent of Food & Agricultural Engineering) Submitted By-:
K.K.Agarwal
 
B.Tech (Food Technology)
 
8
TH
Semester (2005-09 Batch)
Mahatma Gandhi Chitrakoot Gramodaya University, Chitrakoot Satna(MP) 485331
 
Tea 
Introduction to Tea-:
Tea is a natural beverage brewed from the leaves of an evergreen plant calledCamellia sinensis. While it has become common place for people to refer to any hotbeverage that is brewed from naturally occuring plants or plant extracts as "tea"technically, those herbal hot beverages should be called "teassanes", as the word "tea" isreserved for beverages brewed from leaves of Camellia sinensis
.
Tea refers to the agricultural products of the leaves, leaf buds, and internodesof the Camellia sinensis plant, prepared and cured by various methods. "Tea" also refersto the aromatic beverage prepared from the cured leaves by combination with hot orboiling wateWe know that tea is the most widely consumed beverage in the world, mostconsumed after water. Most people, who drink tea, prefer to go with a certain brandbecause of familiarity of taste, aroma, liquor etc. In order to maintain that kind of consistency, tea companies tend to blend teas from various sources until they arrive attheir brand's trademark features. This consistency appeals to the masses, and allowsmanufacturers to produce the teas in thousands of kilograms for mass consumption.
Versatile Plant-:
The camelia sinensis is a very versatile plant that can grow under almost anyconditions. Thus, tea is grown around the world from the Indian Sub-continent in India,Nepal, and SriLanka, to China, Japan, Indonesia, Vietnam, to the African subcontinent in
 
Kenya, to Latin America in Argentina. As can be imagined, the quality of tea variesdramatically from region to region, with most of the variations originating in the variationin the climactic conditions of the regions where the tea is grown and not from thedifferences in the tea bush itself.
Difference in flavor of teas-:
The largest difference in flavor of teas comes from the altitude at which the tea isgrown and the type of soil the bush is grown in. High growth teas tend to be far superiorto the lower growth regions with respect to the subtelities of flavor, color and fragrance.The flavor of the teas is also dependent upon the kind of leaves that have beenplucked. The younger the leaf, the more flavorful the tea. A fine pluck often means thatonly the buds of the new growth have been plucked, where a coarse pluck means thatmore coarse, older leaves were plucked.
Types of Tea-:
Once the tea leaf is plucked, it is processed in the factory to bring out the flavorsin it. There are essentially two types of teas: Orthodox, and CTC. The Orthodox tea is thewhole leaf tea that is generally popular in the west, but in India, CTC tea is wildlypopular for the type of tea they make there, called Chai, involving boiling the tea over andover to extract the most out of it.
1. White tea
Recently popular, white tea is produced when two leaves and a bud are picked justbefore sunrise to preserve the moisture in the leaf. This tea is characterized by a delicateflavor with very little color, however it is highly priced because a days picking producesonly about 1 - 2 kgs. Although it is called white tea, the tea does have some light greencolor charactersitic of the newest buds originating on the bush. The buds are steamed todestroy the enzymes that would otherwise destroy the tea and dried either in the dryer orin the sun.
2. Green tea-:
Green tea is produced by steaming the leaves to destroy the enzymes that mightotherwise ferment the leaves. The leaves are then rolled either by hand or by mechanicalrollers, to bring out the juices in the leaves that are responsible for its flavor. The rolledleaves are then fired to dry them. The entire process of rolling and firing is repeatedseveral times until the leaves are completely dry. The process of producing green tea isvery exacting because variation in the drying time can result in fermentation of the leaveswhich spoils its flavor.
3. Black Tea-:
The most widely consumed beverage, black tea is a close cousin to the Oolong inthat if the tea is fermented long enough, the leaves turn black, hence the term "black tea".The exact time of rolling is determined by the size of the leaf, with smaller leaf beingrolled for shorter period than larger leaf. Rolling induces fermentation of the leaf, andwhen the leaf is judged to be appropriately fermented, the process is slowed by allowingthe leaves to cool off on ventilated trays for 3 to 4 hours. Finally, the fermentation processis stopped by drying the teas under hot blowers, at which point the tea leaves turn fromreddish hue to black. The teas are then passed through various sieves to grade them.

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