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5.Study Experiment on NOS and DOS

5.Study Experiment on NOS and DOS

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Published by Shashank Gosavi
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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Shashank Gosavi on May 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

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01/03/2015

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Aim:
To Study Network Operating System and Distributed Operating System
Theory:Network Operating System:
A networking operating system is an operating system that contains components and programsthat allow a computer on a network to serve requests from other computers for data and provideaccess to other resources such as printer and file systems. Network operating systems (also known as NOS) is an operating system which is designed for special tasks of linking computers and devices in to a local-area network (i.e. LAN). Fig.: Network Operating SystemA network operating system is a software application that provides a platform for both thefunctionality of an individual computer and for multiple computers within an interconnectednetwork. Basically, a network operating system controls other software and computer hardwareto run applications, share resources, protects data and establishes communication. Individualcomputers run client operating systems, while network systems create the software infrastructurefor wireless, local and wide area networks to function.
Origin and Evolution of Network Operating Systems:
Contemporary network operating systems are mostly advanced and specialized branches of POSIX-compliant Software platforms and are rarely developed from scratch.The main reason for this situation is the high cost of developing a world-class operating systemall the way from concept to finished product. By adopting general purpose OS architecture,network vendors can focus on routing-specific code, decrease time to market, and benefit fromyears of technology and research that went into the design of the original (donor) products.
 
1.First-Generation OS: Monolithic Architecture:
Typically, first-generation network operating systems for routers and switches were proprietary images running in a flat memory space, often directly from flash memory or ROM. All first-generation network operating systems shared one trait: They eliminated therisks of running full-size commercial operating systems on embedded hardware. Memorymanagement, protection and context switching were either rudimentary or nonexistent, withthe primary goals being a small footprint and speed of operation. Nevertheless, first-generation network operating systems made networking commerciallyviable and were deployed on a wide range of products. The downside was that these systemswere plagued with a host of problems associated with resource management and faultisolation; a single runaway process could easily consume the processor or cause the entiresystem to fail. Such failures were not uncommon in the data networks controlled by older software and could be triggered by software errors, rogue traffic and operator errors.
2.Second-Generation OS: Control Plane Modularity:
The mid-1990s were marked by a significant increase in the use of data networks worldwide,which quickly challenged the capacity of existing networks and routers. By this time, it had become evident that embedded platforms could run full-size commercial operating systems,at least on high-end hardware, but with one catch: They could not sustain packet forwardingwith satisfactory data rates. A breakthrough solution was needed. It came in the concept of ahard separation between the control and forwarding plane an approach that became widelyaccepted after the success of the industry’s first application-specific integrated circuit(ASIC)-driven routing platform, the Juniper Networks M40. Forwarding packets entirely insilicon was proven to be viable, clearing the path for next generation
3.Third-Generation OS: Flexibility, Scalability and Continuous Operation:
Although second-generation designs were very successful, the past 10 years have broughtnew challenges.Increased competition led to the need to lower operating expenses and a coherent case for network software flexible enough to be redeployed in network devices across the larger partof the end-to-end packet path.Unlike operating systems, such as DOS and Windows that are designed for single users tocontrol one computer network operating systems (NOS) coordinate the activities of multiplecomputers across a network. The network operating system acts as a director to keep thenetwork running smoothly.
The Two major types of Network Operating Systems are:
 
1.Peer-to-Peer2.Client/Server1.Peer-to-Peer:
Peer-to-peer network operating systems allow users to share resources and files located ontheir computers and to access shared resources found on other computers. However, they donot have a file server or a centralized management source. In a peer-to-peer network, allcomputers are considered equal; they all have the same abilities to use the resources availableon the network.Peer to peer networks are designed primarily for small to medium local area networks.AppleShare and Windows for Workgroups are examples of programs that can function as peer-to-peer network operating Systems.Fig.: Peer-to-peer network 
Advantages of a Peer-to-Peer Network:
Less initial expense: No need for a dedicated server 
Setup: An operating system (such as Windows XP) already in place may only need to bereconfigured for peer-to-peer operations.
Disadvantages of a Peer-to-Peer Network:
Decentralized: No central repository for files and applications.
Security: Does not provide the security available on a client/server network.
2.Client/Server:
Client/server network operating systems allow the network to centralize functions andapplications in one or more dedicated file servers. The file servers become the heart of thesystem, providing access to resources and providing security. Individual workstations(clients) have access to the resources available on the file servers. The network operatingsystem provides the mechanism to integrate all the components of the network and allowmultiple users to simultaneously share the same resources irrespective of physical location.

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