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6.to Study Data Centric and Client Centric Consistency Model

6.to Study Data Centric and Client Centric Consistency Model

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Published by Shashank Gosavi

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: Shashank Gosavi on May 14, 2013
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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To study Data Centric and Client Centric Consistency Model
Theory:Consistency model:
A “consistency model” is a CONTRACT between a DS data-store and its processes.If the processes agree to the rules, the data-store will perform properly and as advertised.
Data replication: common technique in distributed systems
Reliability:a.If one replica is unavailable or crashes, use anothe b.Protect against corrupted data
Performance:a.Scale with size of the distributed system (replicated web servers) b.Scale in geographically distributed systems (web proxies)
Key issue: need to maintain consistency of replicated data:a.If one copy is modified, others become inconsistent
Object Replication:
Approach 1: application is responsible for replicationa.Application needs to handle consistency issues
Approach 2: system (middleware) handles replicationa.Consistency issues are handled by the middleware b.Simplifies application development but makes object-specific solutions harder 
Requirements for Replication:Consistency:
In many applications, we want that different clients making (read/write) requests to differentreplicas of the same logical data item should not obtain different resultse.g.:Above example is of updating a replicated database where Update 1 adds 100 euro to an accountand Update 2 calculates and adds 1% interest to the same account. Due to network delays, theupdates may come in different order, which may lead to an Inconsistent state.
Data-Centric Consistency Models:
Consistency in terms of read and writes operations on shared data, called the data store
A shared filesystem, memory space, database, etc.
We assume that each process that can access data from the store has a local (or nearby) copyof the entire store Consistency in terms of read and write operations on shared data, calledthe data store.
As shared filesystem, memory space, database, etc.
We assume that each process that can access data from the store has a local (or nearby) copyof the entire store.
A data-store can be read from or written to by any process in a distributed system.
A local copy of the data-store (replica) can support “fast reads”.
However, a write to a local replica needs to be propagated to
remote replicas.
Various consistency models help to understand the various mechanisms used to achieve andenable this.
Processes execute to the right as time progresses.
The notation W
(x).a means that the process wrote the value ‘a’ to the variable x.
The notation R 
(x).a means that the process read the value ‘a’ from the variable x.
The subscript is often dropped.
Types of Consistency:1. Strict Consistency:
Any read always returns the result of the most recent write
Implicitly assumes the presence of a global clock 
A write is immediately visible to all processesDifficult to achieve in real systems as network delays can be variable
Update is performed at all copies as a single atomic operation.
Problem: updating all replicas at once hurts the performance and scalability.
Solution: loosen the consistency constraints.

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