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SEG80

SEG80

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80 marks SOFTWARE ENGINEERING
Q1.1.TYPES OF PROCESS PATTERNS:Page no.1.32 NIrali2.CORE PRINCIPLES : ANY two (notebook)3.RECOVERY TESTING:
 
1.Many computer based systems must recover from faults and resumeprocessing within a pre specified time.2. In some cases, a system must be fault tolerant; that is, processingfaults must not cause overall system function to cease.3. In other cases, a system failure must be corrected within a specifiedperiod of time or severe economic damage will occur.4.
Recovery testing
is a system test that forces the software tofail in a variety of ways and verifies that recovery is properlyperformed.
5. If recovery is automatic performed by the system itself), reinitialization, check pointing mechanisms, data recovery, and restartare evaluated for correctness.6. If recovery requires human intervention, the mean-time-to-repair(MTTR) is evaluated to determine whether it is within acceptable limits.4.PEOPLE AND PROCESS MANAGEMENT SPECTRUM:Effective software project management focuses on the four P’s: people,product, process, and project.
The People
1.The “people factor” is so important that the Software Engineering Institutehas developed a
 people management capability maturity model
(PM-CMM), toenhance the readiness of software organizations to undertake increasinglycomplex applications by helping to attract, grow, motivate, deploy, and retainthe talent needed to improve their software development capability.2.The people management maturity model defines the following key practiceareas for software people: recruiting, selection, performance management,training, compensation, career development, organization and work design,and team/culture development.3. Organizations that achieve high levels of maturity in the peoplemanagement area have a higher likelihood of implementing effectivesoftware engineering practices.
The Process
1.A software process provides the framework from which a comprehensiveplan for software development can be established.2.A small number of framework activities are applicable to all softwareprojects, regardless of their size or complexity.3. A number of different task sets—tasks, milestones, work products, andquality assurance points—enable the ramework activities to be adapted to
 
the characteristics of the software project and the requirements of theproject team.4.Finally, umbrella activities—such as software quality assurance, softwareconfiguration management, and measurement—overlay the processmodel. Umbrella activities are independent of any one framework activityand occur throughout the process.5.SQA(refer 20 marks).6.ROLE OF SYSTEM ANALYST:PGno2.23 NIRALI PRAKASHAN—analysis taskQ2.1.WATERFALL MODEL:[
classic life cycle,
THE LINEAR SEQUENTIAL MODEL]
Software requirements analysis.1.
 The requirements gathering process is intensified and focused specifically onsoftware. To understand the nature of the program(s) to be built, the softwareengineer ("analyst") must understand the information domain for thesoftware, as well as required function, behavior, performance, and interface.
2.
Requirements for both the system and the software are documented andreviewed with the customer.
Design.1.
Software design is actually a multistep process that focuses on four distinctattributes of a program: data structure, software architecture, interfacerepresentations, and procedural (algorithmic) detail. The design processtranslates requirements into a representation of the software that can beassessed for quality before coding begins.
2.
Like requirements, the design is documented and becomes part of thesoftware configuration.
Code generation.1.
 The design must be translated into a machine-readable form.The codegeneration step performs this task.
2.
If design is performed in a detailed manner,code generation can beaccomplished mechanistically.
Testing.1.
Once code has been generated, program testing begins.
 
2.
 The testing process focuses on the logical internals of the software, ensuringthat all statements have been tested, and on the functional externals; that is,conducting tests to uncover errors and ensure that defined input will produceactual results that agree with required results.
Support.1.
Software will undoubtedly undergo change after it is delivered to thecustomer (a possible exception is embedded software). Softwaresupport/maintenance reapplies each of the preceding phases to an existingprogram rather than a new one.
2.
SOFTWARE PROCESS ASSESSMENTS:Pg no 1.34,1.35,1.36 of NIRALI
3.
BEHAVIORAL MODEL:1.Most software responds to events from the outside world. This stimulus/responsecharacteristic forms the basis of the behavioral model.2.A computer program always exists in some state—an externally observablemode of behavior (e.g., waiting, computing, printing, polling) that is changedonly when some event occurs.3. For example, software will remain in the wait state until(1) An internal clock indicates that some time interval has passed,(2) An external event (e.g., a mouse movement) causes an interrupt, or(3) An external system signals the software to act in some manner.4. A behavioral model creates a representation of the states of the software andthe events that causea software to change state.4.STEPS TO CREATE DATA FLOW MODEL[DFD]:Page no 2.33 NIRALIQ3.
1.
 TECHNIQUES OF WHITE BOX TESTING:1.BASIC PATH TESTING:a.The basis path method enables the test case designer to derive alogical complexity measure of a procedural design and use thismeasure as a guide for defining a basis set of execution paths.b.Test cases derived to exercise the basis set are guaranteed to executeevery statement in the program at least one time during testing.2.CONDITION TESTING:
a.Condition testing
is a test case design method that exercises thelogical conditions contained in a program module.

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