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A Study on Options for Pastoralists to Secure their Livelihoods in Tanzania: Current Policy, Legal and Economic Issues

A Study on Options for Pastoralists to Secure their Livelihoods in Tanzania: Current Policy, Legal and Economic Issues

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Published by Martin Walsh
The main report of a joint study of pastoralism and policy options in Tanzania by Ringo Tenga, Amon Mattee, Ntengua Mdoe, Raymond Mnenwa, Sengondo Mvungi & Martin Walsh.
Citation: Tenga, R., Mattee, A., Mdoe, N., Mnenwa, R., Mvungi, S. & Walsh, M. T. 2008. A Study on Options for Pastoralists to Secure their Livelihoods in Tanzania: Current Policy, Legal and Economic Issues. Volume One: Main Report. Report commissioned by CORDS, PWC, IIED, MMM Ngaramtomi Centre, TNRF and UCRT, and funded by CORDAID, TROCAIRE, Ireland Aid and the Wildlife Conservation Society AHEAD Programme.
The main report of a joint study of pastoralism and policy options in Tanzania by Ringo Tenga, Amon Mattee, Ntengua Mdoe, Raymond Mnenwa, Sengondo Mvungi & Martin Walsh.
Citation: Tenga, R., Mattee, A., Mdoe, N., Mnenwa, R., Mvungi, S. & Walsh, M. T. 2008. A Study on Options for Pastoralists to Secure their Livelihoods in Tanzania: Current Policy, Legal and Economic Issues. Volume One: Main Report. Report commissioned by CORDS, PWC, IIED, MMM Ngaramtomi Centre, TNRF and UCRT, and funded by CORDAID, TROCAIRE, Ireland Aid and the Wildlife Conservation Society AHEAD Programme.

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Published by: Martin Walsh on Apr 11, 2009
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A STUDY ON OPTIONS FOR PASTORALISTS TO SECURETHEIR LIVELIHOODS IN TANZANIA
 
CURRENT POLICY, LEGAL AND ECONOMIC ISSUES
 
Volume One: Main Report
AUTHORSRingo TengaAmon MatteeNtengua MdoeRaymond MnenwaSengondo MvungiMartin Walsh
April 2008
This study is an effort to realize the challenge given in 2006 to pastoralist stakeholders in Tanzania by the UN SpecialRapporteur Professor Rodolfo Stavenhagen on the rights and situation of Indigenous peoples, where he argued on thenecessity of developing options for securing livelihoods in the face of loss of basic resources.Here the authors present options for Pastoralist livelihoods in terms of current state policies, legal status and economicprospects. The study is commissioned by CORDS, PWC, IIED, MMM Ngaramtoni Centre, TNRF and UCRT. It has beenfunded by CORDAID, TROCAIRE, Ireland Aid and the Wildlife Conservation Society AHEAD Programme. Howeverviews expressed herein are solely those of the authors.
 
 
 
2
Table of ContentsA
CKNOWLEDGEMENTS
............................................................................................. 7
 
L
IST OF
A
CRONYMS
................................................................................................. 8
 
EXECUTIVE
 
SUMMARY ..................................................................................... 10
 
i.
 
What Are The Objectives Of This Study? ............................................................... 11
 
ii.
 
Policy Related Issues ................................................................................................... 11
 
iii.
 
Investment Related Issues ........................................................................................... 12
 
iv.
 
Legal Related Issues .................................................................................................... 13
 
v.
 
The Way Forward ....................................................................................................... 14
 
vi.
 
Conclusion .................................................................................................................... 16
 
1
 
INTRODUCTION ......................................................................................... 17
 
1.1
 
Study Objectives ................................................................................. 17
 
1.1.1
 
Policy related Issues .......................................................................................................... 17
 
1.1.2
 
Investment related Issues .................................................................................................. 18
 
1.1.3
 
Legal Issues ......................................................................................................................... 19
 
1.1.4
 
For All Consultants ............................................................................................................. 19
 
1.2
 
Expected Output(s) .............................................................................. 20
 
1.3
 
How the Study was conducted ............................................................ 21
 
1.4
 
Timeframe and methodology .............................................................. 21
 
1.5
 
Study Team ......................................................................................... 21
 
1.6
 
Reporting ............................................................................................. 22
 
2
 
POLICY
 
RELATED
 
ISSUES ............................................................................ 23
 
2.1
 
Current Policies and Policy Making Practices ...................................... 23
 
2.1.1
 
The Policy – Making Process in Tanzania ..................................................................... 23
 
i.
 
National level .............................................................................................................. 25
 
ii.
 
Local Government level .............................................................................................. 27
 
 
 
3
2.2
 
What drives policy in Tanzania? ......................................................... 29
 
2.2.1
 
Commercial/Economic interests .................................................................................... 29
 
2.3
 
The Impact of Policies on Pastoralist Livelihoods................................ 30
 
2.4
 
Map of existing social networks with a common interest in issuesof concern to pastoralist livelihoods ................................................... 31
 
2.4.1
 
Legal and Human Rights Centre (LHRC) ........................................................................ 33
 
2.4.2
 
Haki-Ardhi .......................................................................................................................... 33
 
2.4.3
 
Oxfam ................................................................................................................................. 33
 
2.4.4
 
FARM-Africa ....................................................................................................................... 34
 
2.4.5
 
Haki Kazi Catalyst ............................................................................................................ 34
 
2.4.6
 
The Department of Pastoral Systems Development, Ministry of LivestockDevelopment .................................................................................................................................... 34
 
2.4.7
 
Tanzania Natural Resources Forum (TNRF
 )
.................................................................. 35
 
2.4.8
 
Vetaid.................................................................................................................................. 35
 
2.4.9
 
The Foundation for Civil Society ..................................................................................... 36
 
2.4.10
 
The NGO Forum ................................................................................................................ 36
 
2.5
 
References ........................................................................................... 37
 
3
 
LEGAL
 
ISSUES ............................................................................................. 38
 
3.1
 
Introduction ......................................................................................... 38
 
3.2
 
Governance Regulation ....................................................................... 39
 
3.3
 
The Local Government Acts and Governance at Village Level. ........... 39
 
3.4
 
What is the Status Pastoralist Customary Institutions & Law? ............. 41
 
3.5
 
Statutory Regulation of Pastoralist Livelihoods ................................... 44
 
3.5.1
 
Land Law & Land Use Planning Laws ............................................................................ 44
 
3.5.2
 
Conservation Laws ............................................................................................................ 46
 
i.
 
Impact on Pastoral livelihoods. ................................................................................. 46
 
ii.
 
The Inclusion of Pastoralists in Conservation: The case of WildlifeManagement Areas (WMAs). ................................................................................... 48
 
3.5.3
 
Livestock & Range Management Laws .......................................................................... 50
 
i.
 
Legislative Reform: ................................................................................... 50
 

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