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Mobius Transformation(s)

# Mobius Transformation(s)

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05/15/2013

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By Jaime R SandovalEvery M¨obius map acts on hyperbolic space
2
as a hyperbolic isometry,and every isometry that preserves orientation is a M¨obius map.Proof:
Let H =
{
x+iy: y
>
0
}
in C.
Axiom
: The metric of upper space model of ahyperbolic plane is represented as
dx
2
+
dy
2
y
2
, also called the Poincar´e half planemodel.
Proof
: Consider
α
= [0, t]
, t
[t
0
, t
1
] Arc length =

t
1
t
0
(g(
α
´,
α
´))
12
dt=

t
1
t
0
1
t
dt =
ln
(
t
)
t
1
t
0
=
ln
t
1
t
0
which is the Poincar´e arc length #This gives a two-dimensional perspective of a hyperbolic geometry. The straightlines, or geodesic, in the hyperbolic plane are circular arcs perpendicular to thex-axis. Therefore, a geodesic includes two points on a curved surface. Thismodel is comformal.Let us consider the isometries from H to itself.If a, b, c, d
R
>
0, then the M¨obius map z
w=
az
+
bcz
+
d
=f(z).Becomes restrict to a bijection from H to H with a uniform inverse, i,e; w
z=
dw
b
cw
+
a
=f
1
(w), and we see that the inverse of any M¨obius map is again a M¨obiusmap.We are going to take the derivative of w=
az
+
bcz
+
d
dw=
(
bc
)(
cz
+
d
)
2
dz and substitutethis into
du
2
+
dv
2
v
2
=
4
|
dw
|
2
|
w
¯
w
|
2
. Therefore,
4
|
dw
|
2
|
w
¯
w
|
2
=
4
|
dz
|
2
|
z
¯
z
|
2
=
dx
2
+
dy
2
y
2
. This impliesthat an isometry from H to H is a M¨obius map.The M¨obius maps z
z
, and thus the composition is also an isometry from Hto H. i,e; (f
1
(w))(z)=
a
(
dz
b
cz
+
a
)+
bc
(
dz
b
cz
+
a
)+
d
=z =I(z)= (f
1
f)The isometries f:D
D of the unit disc model of hyperbolic plane are alsoobius transformation, since they preserve orientation, or as shown above withz
¯
z
if they reverse orientation. There is another M¨obius transformation thatmap D onto itself of the form z
w= e
(
z
a
1
¯
az
) where a
D and
θ
∈
. These areisometries since when substituting w and dw = e
(1
−|
a
|
2
)(1
¯
az
)
2
dz in 4(1 -
|
w
|
2
)
2
provides 4(1-
|
z
|
2
)
2
|
dz
|
2
.The group of isometries of H acts transitively on H because if a+ib
H
b
>
0i.e; the transformation z
bz+a is an isometry of H which takes i to a+ib. Like-wise, the group of isometries of D acts transitively on D, since if a is in D thenthe isometry z
z
a
1
¯
az
maps a to zero. The subgroup of isometries of D consist-ing of those isometries which ﬁx zero contains all the rotations z
e
z aboutzero as well as z
¯
z
.
Now, the isometry from H to D given by w
z =
w
iw
+
i
takes geodesics to geodesics1