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Chapter 03_liquid,Solid n Phase Changes

Chapter 03_liquid,Solid n Phase Changes

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Published by fit3akmal

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Published by: fit3akmal on Apr 12, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial


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Chapter 3:Liquids, Solids & PhaseChanges
Chapter Objectives:
• To learn the differences between the solid, liquid, and gas state,and how the polarity of molecules influences those states.• To learn the different types of intermolecular forces betweendifferent molecules.
Kinetic Molecular Theory of Liquidsand Solids
Liquids and solids have significant interactions.Liquids and solids have well-defined volume.Liquid molecules “flow,” while solids are held “rigid.”
A molecular comparison of gases, liquids, and solids.(b)In gases, the particles feel little attraction for one another and are free to move about randomly.(b) In liquids, the particles are held close together by attractiveforces but are free to move over one another.(c)In solids, the particles are rigidly held in an ordered arrangement.
Polar Bonds
Individual covalent bonds are polar if the atoms beingconnected are of different electronegativities. This isdescribed as a bond
The C—H bonds are
since C and H have about thesame electronegativity.
Since Cl is more electronegative than C, the C—Cl bond is
so that the Cl atom is slightly electron-rich (partialnegative charge,δ
) and the C atom is slightly electron-poor (partial positive charge, δ
). This bond is a
polar covalentbond
(or just
polar bond

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