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earth science olympiad material ( materi olimpiade kebumian )

earth science olympiad material ( materi olimpiade kebumian )

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Published by laciferista
Kinds of Igneous Rock
Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization from a liquid, or magma. They include two types
Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the
surface of the Earth
Intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks wherein the magma crystallizes at depth in the Earth.Kinds of Igneous Rock
Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization from a liquid, or magma. They include two types
Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the
surface of the Earth
Intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks wherein the magma crystallizes at depth in the Earth.
Kinds of Igneous Rock
Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization from a liquid, or magma. They include two types
Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the
surface of the Earth
Intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks wherein the magma crystallizes at depth in the Earth.Kinds of Igneous Rock
Igneous Rocks are formed by crystallization from a liquid, or magma. They include two types
Volcanic or extrusive igneous rocks form when the magma cools and crystallizes on the
surface of the Earth
Intrusive or plutonic igneous rocks wherein the magma crystallizes at depth in the Earth.

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Published by: laciferista on Apr 12, 2009
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01/31/2015

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This page last updated on 22-Sep-2003
 
Prof. Stephen A. NelsonEENS 111
 
Tulane UniversityPhysical Geology
 
Earthquakes and the Earth's Interior 
 
Earthquakes
 Earthquakes occur when energy stored in elastically strained rocks is suddenly released. Thisrelease of energy causes intense ground shaking in the area near the source of the earthquakeand sends waves of elastic energy, called seismic waves, throughout the Earth. Earthquakes can be generated by bomb blasts, volcanic eruptions, and sudden slippage along faults. Earthquakesare definitely a geologic hazard for those living in earthquake prone areas, but the seismicwaves generated by earthquakes are invaluable for studying the interior of the Earth.
Origin of Earthquakes
 Most natural earthquakes are caused by suddenslippage along a fault zone. The
elasticrebound theory
suggests that if slippage alonga fault is hindered such that elastic strainenergy builds up in the deforming rocks oneither side of the fault, when the slippage doesoccur, the energy released causes anearthquake. This theory was discovered bymaking measurements at a number of pointsacross a fault. Prior to an earthquake it wasnoted that the rocks adjacent to the fault were bending. These bends disappeared after anearthquake suggesting that the energy stored in bending the rocks was suddenly released duringthe earthquake.
Seismology, The Study of Earthquakes
 When an earthquake occurs, the elastic energy is released and sends out vibrations that travelthroughout the Earth. These vibrations are called seismic waves. The study of how seismicwaves behave in the Earth is called
 seismology
.Earthquakes & Earth's Interior 9/22/2003Page 1 of 13
 
 
Seismographs - Seismicwaves travel through theEarth as vibrations. A
 seismometer 
is aninstrument used to recordthese vibrations and theresulting graph that showsthe vibrations is called a
 seismograph
. Theseismometer must be ableto move with thevibrations, yet part of itmust remain nearlystationary.This is accomplished by isolating the recording device (like a pen) from the rest of theEarth using the principal of inertia. For example, if the pen is attached to a large masssuspended by a spring, the spring and the large mass move less than the paper which isattached to the Earth, and on which the record of the vibrations is made.
Seismic Waves. The source of anearthquake is called the
 focus
, whichis an exact location within the Earthwere seismic waves are generated bysudden release of stored elasticenergy. The
epicenter 
is the point onthe surface of the Earth directlyabove the focus. Sometimes themedia get these two terms confused.Seismic waves emanating from thefocus can travel in several ways, andthus there are several different kindsof seismic waves.
 Body Waves
- emanatefrom the focus and travel inall directions through the body of the Earth. Thereare two types of bodywaves:Earthquakes & Earth's Interior 9/22/2003Page 2 of 13
 
 P - waves
- are Primary waves. They travel with a velocity that depends onthe elastic properties of the rock through which they travel.
 p
=
[(K + 4/3
µ
)/ 
ρ
 
Where, V
 p
is the velocity of the P-wave, K is the incompressibility of thematerial,
µ
is the rigidity of the material, and
ρ
is the density of the material.P-waves are the same thing as sound waves. They move through the material by compressing it, but after it has been compressed it expands, so that thewave moves by compressing and expanding the material as it travels. Thusthe velocity of the P-wave depends on how easily the material can becompressed (the incompressibility), how rigid the material is (the rigidity),and the density of the material. P-waves have the highest velocity of allseismic waves and thus will reach all seismographs first.
 S-Waves
- Secondary waves, also called shear waves. They travel with avelocity that depends only on the rigidity and density of the material throughwhich they travel:
 s
=
[( 
µ
)/ 
ρ
 
S-waves travel through material by shearing it or changing its shape in thedirection perpendicular to the direction of travel. The resistance to shearingof a material is the property called the rigidity. It is notable that liquids haveno rigidity, so that the velocity of an S-wave is zero in a liquid. (This pointwill become important later). Note that S-waves travel slower than P-waves,so they will reach a seismograph after the P-wave.
 Surface Waves
- Surface waves differ from body waves in that they do not travelthrough the Earth, but instead travel along paths nearly parallel to the surface of the Earth. Surface waves behave like S-waves in that they cause up and down andside to side movement as they pass, but they travel slower than S-waves and do nottravel through the body of the Earth.The record of anearthquake, aseismograph, asrecorded by aseismometer, will be a plot of vibrations versustime. On theseismograph, timeis marked at regular intervals, so that wecan determine thetime of arrival of the first P-wave andthe time of arrivalof the first S-wave.Earthquakes & Earth's Interior 9/22/2003Page 3 of 13

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