The main areas that are identified in this model are:
a) the need for
about our geographical and social world (newsand drama)
b) the need for
, by using characters and personalities to define our sense of self and social behaviour (film and celebrities)
c) the need for
through experiencing the relationships and interaction of others (soap lives and sitcom)
d) the need for
by using the media for purposes of play and entertainment (game shows and quizzes).
The active audience
More recent developments still, suggest that there is a decoding processgoing on among the active audience who are not simply using the media for gratification purposes. Morley's view of dominant, negotiated and oppositionalreadings of texts is a semiological approach because it recognises theimportance of the analysis of signs, particularly visual signs, that shape somuch of modern media output. In this model, at its simplest level, theaudience accept or agree with the encoded meanings, they accept and refineparts of the text's meanings or they are aware of the dominant meaning of thetext but reject it for cultural, political or ideological reasons.
Mode of address
Still in line with the active audience idea is the concept of
mode of address.
This refers to the way that a text speaks to us in a style that encourages us toidentify with the text because it is 'our' kind of text. For example
isintended for a young audience because of the way it uses music and theopening credits to develop a sense of fun, energy and enthusiasm that theperceived audience can identify with. This does not mean that other groupsare excluded, merely that the dominant mode of address is targetted at theyoung. Mode of address can even be applied to entire outputs, as in the caseof Channel Four which works hard to form a style of address aimed at anaudience which is informed, articulate and in some ways a specialised one.Newspapers, too, often construct their presentation to reflect what theyimagine is the identity of their typical readers. Compare
in this context.
The latest research into audience has resulted in an
model,which means that the researcher enters into the culture of the group and uses