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Chapter 1 Some fundamentals of empirical research
1. Introduction
2. On the relevance of quantitative methods in linguistics
3. The design and the logic of quantitative studies
3.1. Scouting
3.2. Hypotheses and operationalization
3.2.1. Scientific hypotheses in text form
3.2.3. Scientific hypotheses in statistical/mathematical form
3.3. Data collection and storage
3.4.1. One-tailed p-values from discrete probability distributions
3.4.2. Two-tailed p-values from discrete probability distributions
3.4.3. Extension: continuous probability distributions
4. The design of a factorial experiment: introduction
5. The design of a factorial experiment: another example
1. Introduction and installation
2. Functions and arguments
3. Vectors
3.1. Generating vectors
3.3. Editing vectors
5.1. Generating data frames
5.3. Editing data frames
6. Some programming: conditionals and loops
6.1. Conditional expressions
6.2. Loops
7. Writing your own little functions
1. Univariate statistics
1.1. Frequency data
1.1.1. Scatterplots and line plots
1.1.2. Pie charts
1.1.3. Bar plots
1.1.4. Pareto-charts
1.1.5. Histograms
1.1.6. Empirical cumulatuive distributions
1.2. Measures of central tendency
1.2.1. The mode
1.2.2. The median
1.2.3. The arithmetic mean
1.2.4. The geometric mean
1.3. Measures of dispersion
1.3.1. Relative entropy
1.3.2. The range
1.3.3. Quantiles and quartiles
1.3.4. The average deviation
1.3.5. The standard deviation/variance
1.3.6. The variation coefficient
1.3.7. Summary functions
1.3.8. The standard error
1.4. Centering and standardization (z-scores)
1.5. Confidence intervals
1.5.1. Confidence intervals of arithmetic means
1.5.2. Confidence intervals of percentages
2. Bivariate statistics
2.1. Frequencies and crosstabulation
2.1.1. Bar plots and mosaic plots
2.1.2. Spineplots
2.1.3. Line plots
2.2. Means
2.2.1. Boxplots
2.2.2. Interaction plots
2.3. Coefficients of correlation and linear regression
1. Distributions and frequencies
1.1. Distribution fitting
1.1.1. One dep. variable (ratio-scaled)
1.1.2. One dep. variable (nominal/categorical)
1.2. Tests for differences/independence
2. Dispersions
2.1. Goodness-of-fit test for one dep. variable (ratio-scaled)
3. Means
3.1. Goodness-of-fit tests
3.1.1. One dep. variable (ratio-scaled)
3.1.2. One dep. variable (ordinal)
3.2. Tests for differences/independence
4. Coefficients of correlation and linear regression
4.1. The significance of the product-moment correlation
4.2. The significance of Kendall’s Tau
4.3. Correlation and causality
Chapter 5 Selected multifactorial and multivariate methods
1. The notions of interaction and model (selection)
1.1. Interactions
1.2. Model (selection)
1.2.1. Formulating the first model
1.2.2. Selecting a final model
2. Linear models
2.1. A linear model with a binary predictor
2.2. A linear model with a categorical predictor
2.3. A linear model with a numeric predictor
2.4. A linear model with a two categorical predictors
2.5. A linear model with a categorical and a numeric predictor
2.6. A linear model with two numeric predictors
3. Binary logistic regression models
3.1. A logistic regression with a binary predictor
3.2. A logistic regression with a categorical predictor
3.3. A logistic regression with a numeric predictor
3.4. A logistic regression with two categorical predictors
3.6. A logistic regression with two numeric predictors
4. Other regression models
5. Repeated measurements: a primer
5.1. One independent variable nested into subjects/items
5.2. Two independent variables nested into subjects/items
5.4. Mixed-effects / multi-level models
6. Hierarchical agglomerative cluster analysis
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