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Electric Fields

Electric Fields

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use it to know all about electrical line of forces
use it to know all about electrical line of forces

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10/17/2011

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Electric Fields
Review of gravitational fieldsElectric field vector Electric fields for various charge configurationsField strengths for point charges and uniform fieldsWork done by fields & change in potential energyPotential & equipotential surfacesCapacitors, capacitance, & voltage drops across capacitorsMillikan oil drop experimentExcess Charge Distribution on a Conductor

Gravitational Fields: Review
Recall that surrounding any object with mass, or collection of objects with mass, is agravitational field. Any mass placed in a gravitational field will experience agravitational force. We defined the field strength as thegravitational force per unitmasson any “test mass” placed in the field:

=

/

m
.
is a vector that points inthe direction of the net gravitational force; its units are N

/

kg.

is the vector forceon the test mass, and
m
is the test mass, a scalar.

and
are always parallel. Thestrength of the field is independent of the test mass. For example, near Earth’ssurface
mg

/

m
=
g =
9.8 N

/

kg
for any mass. Some fields are uniform (parallel,equally spaced fields lines). Nonuniform fields are stronger where the field lines arecloser together.
Earth

Earth’s surface
10 kg98 N
m
uniform field nonuniform field

Electric Fields: Intro
Surrounding any object with charge, or collection of objects with charge, is aelectric field. Any charge placed in an electric field will experience a electricalforce. We defined the field strength as theelectric force per unit chargeon any “testcharge” placed in the field:

=

/

q
.
is a vector that points, by definition, in thedirection of the net electric force on a positive charge; its units are N

/

C.

is thevector force on the test charge, and
q
is the test charge, a scalar.

and
are only parallel if the test charge is positive. Some fields are uniform (parallel, equallyspaced fields lines) such as the field on the left formed by a sheet of negative charge. Nonuniform fields are stronger where the field lines are closer together, such as thefield on the right produced by a sphere of negative charge.
-

- - - - - - - - - - - - - -
qq
uniform field nonuniform field
++