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antibiotic susceptibility test

antibiotic susceptibility test

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Published by farhanna8
the antibiotic susceptibility test for salomonella, staphylococcus aureus and vibrio para
the antibiotic susceptibility test for salomonella, staphylococcus aureus and vibrio para

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Published by: farhanna8 on Apr 13, 2009
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05/15/2013

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Introduction
The presence of antimicrobial agents at low concentration through leaching or continuedusage may lead to the development of drug-resistant strains and Multiple AntibioticResistance (MAR) in bacteria which may result to resistance transfer to pathogenic bacteriaand reduced efficacy of antibiotic treatment for human and animal diseases. Several studieshave been done to investigate the possible consequences of the used of antimicrobials.Antibiotic susceptibility pattern has long been utilized as useful epidemiological markerssince it is very simple to perform and the results could be obtained in a ver y short time andare easy to interpret (Tenover et al., 1995). The existence of bacterial antibiotic resistancemay be as a result of non-clinical used of antibiotics in both animal and humans.Resistance to antimicrobial compounds can be conferred by innate structural features of microorganisms such as an impermeable outer membrane that resists penetration of antibiotics. Gram-negative bacteria have a thick lipopolysaccharide layer that acts as a barrier to limit diffusion of antibiotic molecules into the cell while gram-positive bacteriacharacteristically have lipophilic substances in their cells walls that retards penetrations of hydrophilic, cationic and antimicrobial compounds. In addition to barriers, microorganismsmay possess a variety of other resistant mechanism. For example, the organism may lack atransport system necessary for antibiotic uptake or be lacking the biochemical target requiredfor attachment and proper functioning of the antimicrobial compound (Volk et al., 1996).The multiple antibiotic resistance index of the isolates is defined as a/b where ‘a’ representsthe number of antibiotics to which the particular isolate was resistant and ‘b’ the number of antibiotics to which the isolate was exposed to (Krumperman, 1983).
Objectives
To expose student with the knowledge of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Test
Materials:
1.Mueller Hinton Agar 2.Pure culture3.Sterile cotton swab4.Antibiotic discs
 
Methodology:
1.Briefly, organisms were grown at 37ºC in Mueller Hinton broth.2.Ten microliters of the overnight culture were used to inoculate a fresh3.Mueller Hinton broth followed by incubation at 37 ºC with shaking until a 0.5McFarland turbidity standard (biomerieux, France) was obtained.4.A sterile swab was dipped into this culture and used to inoculate the surface of a freshMueller Hinton agar plates and were allowed to dry for 2 to 5 minutes.5.The antibiotics discs were spaced out onto the plates and were incubated at 37ºC for 24 hours.6.The diameter of the clear zone or each antibiotic disc was interpreted as susceptibilityor resistant categories according to the guideline recommended by the NationalCommittee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (2004).
Observation:Types of CultureAntibiotics DiscsStreptomycin Nycin Kanamycin
Staphylococcus aureus
Diameter of clear zone:1.8 cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:1.8 cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:2.0 cmsusceptible
Salmonella sp.
Diameter of clear zone:1.8 cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:1.8 cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:2.2cmsusceptible
 
Vibrio para
Diameter of clear zone:2.0cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:1.8 cmsusceptibleDiameter of clear zone:2.2cmsusceptible
Discussion:
Antibiotic sensitivity is a term used to describe the susceptibility of  bacteriatoantibiotics. Antibiotic susceptibility testing (AST) is usually carried out to determine which antibioticwill be most successful in treating a bacterial infection in vivo.In the disk-diffusion susceptibility test, disks containing known amounts of an antimicrobialagent are placed on the surface of an agar plate containing a non selective medium that has been inoculated with a suspension of a strain. The antimicrobial agent diffuses into themedium, causing a zone of inhibition of growth of the strain around the disk corresponding tothe susceptibility of the strain to the agent. Bacteria are not able to grow around antibiotics towhich they are sensitive.Interpretative inhibition zone diameters have been established for susceptibility test results to permit classification of an isolate as being susceptible, intermediate (or exhibiting decreasedsusceptibility), or resistant to an antimicrobial agent.From the result obtained, we can see that kanamycin inhibit the growth of bacteria the mostfollowed by streptomycin and nycin. Usually, according to National Committee for ClinicalLaboratory Standards, susceptible categories is interpreted when the clear zone is ≥ 18 mm.From the result, we can be confirmed that all the bacteria were susceptibled to all 3antibiotics.

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