The presence of antimicrobial agents at low concentration through leaching or continuedusage may lead to the development of drug-resistant strains and Multiple AntibioticResistance (MAR) in bacteria which may result to resistance transfer to pathogenic bacteriaand reduced efficacy of antibiotic treatment for human and animal diseases. Several studieshave been done to investigate the possible consequences of the used of antimicrobials.Antibiotic susceptibility pattern has long been utilized as useful epidemiological markerssince it is very simple to perform and the results could be obtained in a ver y short time andare easy to interpret (Tenover et al., 1995). The existence of bacterial antibiotic resistancemay be as a result of non-clinical used of antibiotics in both animal and humans.Resistance to antimicrobial compounds can be conferred by innate structural features of microorganisms such as an impermeable outer membrane that resists penetration of antibiotics. Gram-negative bacteria have a thick lipopolysaccharide layer that acts as a barrier to limit diffusion of antibiotic molecules into the cell while gram-positive bacteriacharacteristically have lipophilic substances in their cells walls that retards penetrations of hydrophilic, cationic and antimicrobial compounds. In addition to barriers, microorganismsmay possess a variety of other resistant mechanism. For example, the organism may lack atransport system necessary for antibiotic uptake or be lacking the biochemical target requiredfor attachment and proper functioning of the antimicrobial compound (Volk et al., 1996).The multiple antibiotic resistance index of the isolates is defined as a/b where ‘a’ representsthe number of antibiotics to which the particular isolate was resistant and ‘b’ the number of antibiotics to which the isolate was exposed to (Krumperman, 1983).
To expose student with the knowledge of the Antibiotic Susceptibility Test
1.Mueller Hinton Agar 2.Pure culture3.Sterile cotton swab4.Antibiotic discs