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Importance of Research in Nursing

Importance of Research in Nursing

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Published by: malyn1218 on Apr 13, 2009
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11/16/2013

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I.Importance of Research in nursing
1.Research is an important tool for the continual development of a relevant body of knowledge in nursing.2.Research generates information from nursing investigations which help define theunique role of nursing as a profession.3.Professional accountability of nurses to their clients is demonstrated when nursesincorporate research evidence into their clinical decisions.4.Research facilitates evaluation of the efficacy of nurses; practice which mayarticulate their role in the delivery of health services.
5.
Another reason for nurses to engage in research involves the spiraling costs of health care and the cost-containment practices being instituted in health carefacilities. With research, costly trial-an-error and even unsafe interventions areavoided.6.Research may allow nurses to make more informed decisions as each phase of thenursing process is clarified through research.
Research also enables nurses to
7.understand a particular nursing situation about which little is known,8.assess the need for an intervention,9.identify factors that must be considered in planning nursing care,10.predict the probable outcomes of certain nursing decisions,11.control the occurrence of undesired outcomes,
12.
provide advice to enhance client health, and
13.
initiate activities to promote appropriate client behavior.
II.
Main difference between quanti and quali researchSimilarity:
Both methodologies require researcher expertise, involve rigor in conducting the study,and generate scientific knowledge for nursing practice.
Differences:
1.In terms of their philosophical underpinnings, quantitative research is based onlogical positivism while qualitative research is naturalistic, interpretive, andhumanistic
2.
In terms of focus, quantitative research is objective, concise, and reductionist,whilequalitative research is broad, subjective, and holistic.
3.
In terms of reasoning, quantitative research is logistic and deductive whilequalitative research is dialectic and inductive.
4.
In terms of their basis of knowing, quantitative research is based on discoveringcause-and-effect relationships while qualitative research is based on meaning,discovery, and understanding.
5.
In terms of their theoretical focus, quantitative research tests theorywhilequalitative research develops theory
 
6.In terms of their basic element of analysis, quantitative research uses numbers,while qualitative research uses words
7.
Quantitative research utilizes statistics to make generalization while qualitativeresearch looks into individual interpretation to find the uniqueness of aphenomenon.
III.Major steps in quantitative research
Phase I: The conceptual Phase1.Formulating and delimiting the problemExample:“Do women who attend structured antenatal classes have higher scores in thelabor and delivery knowledge test and experience less pain in labor?”2.Next step will be to review related literaturesA.Identify key words/phrases
Pregnancy Primigravid woman Antenatal care and existing programsStages of Labor and delivery processLabor painsGate control theory of painLearning theories
B.Identify possible resources
A.
Maternal and child health nursing books
B.
Surf the net Pubmed/Medline, Cochrane Library
C.
Library search for relevant journals such as The American Journal of Obstetric and Gynecology Nursing, Nursing Research Journal, PublicHealth Nursing Journal
3.
Interview clinicians (OB-GYNe nurses, doctors, public health nurses) dobenchmarking
4.
Explore theory of reasoned action, or the health belief model if these can supportproposed study.
5.
Hypotheses: “Women who attend structured antenatal classes obtain highertest scores in the labor and delivery knowledge test than women whodo not attend.”“Women who attend structured antenatal classes throughoutpregnancy request less analgesia during the first stage of labor.”“There is no significant difference in the test scores from a labor anddelivery knowledge test between women who attend and thosewho do not attend structured antenatal classes.”“There is no significant difference in the number of requests foranalgesia during the first stage of labor between women who attended andthose who did not attend structured antenatal classes.”
 
Phase II: The design and planning phase
6.
Choose a
nonequivalent group pretest and post test quasi-experimental design
. Since it is difficult to determine the population of all primigravid women inDumaguete City or the province of Negros Oriental, it is not very feasible to comeup with a sampling frame where actual subjects will be drawn. A modified samplingdesign where the decision to which group will the first qualified subject shouldbelong will be done through simple random sampling by tossing a coin.
7.
A well structured antenatal care class program will be designed. It shall include thefollowing topics and activities:Normal physiology of pregnancy, labor and delivery The psychological aspects of pregnancy, labor and deliveryDiscomforts experienced during labor and how to manage them.Prenatal exercises in preparation of the labor and delivery processFactors that may affect pain experience during labor and delivery.
8.
 The population is all primigravid women on their second trimester of pregnancywho are residing in the barangays of the randomly chosen towns and cities of Negros oriental at the time of program implementation.
9.
Cluster sampling will be used. Clusters will be the basis starting with towns andcities, two towns and two cities will be chosen at random. From these towns andcities will be drawn the barangays included in the study. A total of four barangays(2 urban and 2 rural) will be drawn from each of these barangays. All primigravidmothers will be recruited from each of these barangays. To prevent contamination,all women from the barangays that are randomly assigned to the control group willbe tested first. After the post test has been conducted for the control group,women of the barangays randomly assigned to the experimental group will beexposed to the structured antenatal care program after the pretest and then a posttest will also be given.
10.
A 20-item knowledge test will be developed which will be used for the pre and posttest measure on knowledge. To measure number of analgesia, a monitoringscheme will be devised which will be used to record number of askings foranalgesics indicating frequency, dosage, response and person administering theintervention.
11.
An informed consent will be secured from each participant. A set of inclusioncriteria will also be specified. Recruitment of subjects should be without any formof coercion or threat. Women of both groups will continue to attend usual prenatalcheck-ups at their barangay health stations.
12.
 Trainings for program facilitators and data collectors will be done at least a monthprior to actual conduct of the study. Prepared data gathering tools will besubmitted for expert scrutiny through Delphi technique. Knowledge test measurewill be submitted for item analysis and content validity with some experts.Phase III: The empirical phase

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