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Asas Keusahawanan Dah Edit

Asas Keusahawanan Dah Edit

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Published by: aniskpf on Apr 13, 2009
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03/29/2013

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INTRODUCTION
The understanding of entrepreneur owes much to the work of economist JosephSchumpeter and the Austrian School of economics. In Schumpeter ( 1950 ), anentrepreneur is a person who is willing and able to convert a new idea or anvention into asuccessful innovation. Entrepreneurship forces “creative destruction” across markets andindustries, simultaneously creating new products and new models. In this way, creativedestruction is largely responsible for the dynasism of industries and long-run economicgrowth. Despite Schumpeter’s early 20thcentury contributions, the traditionalmicroeconomic theory of economics has little room for entrepreneurs in its theoreticalframeworks ( instead assuming that resources would find each other through a pricesystem ). ( The economist Magazine, March 11,2006, pp 67 ).Entrepreneurship received a boost in the formalized creation of so-calledincubators and science parks ( e.g.,those listed at NBIA.org ), where business can start ata small scale, share service and space while they grow and eventually move into space of their own when they have achieved a large enough scale to be viable stand-alone businesses. It is being encouraged in an effort to revitalize fading downtowns and inner cities in America, which may have excellent resources but suffer from a lack of spiritieddevelopment.For Frank H. Knigh ( 1967 ) and Peter Drucker ( 1970 ) entrepreneurship is abouttaking risk. The behaviour of the entrepreneur reflects a kind of person willing to put hisor her career and financial security on the line and take risks in the name of an idea,spending much time as well as capital on an uncertain venture. Still another view of entrepreneurship is that it is true the process of discovering, evaluating and exploitingopportunities, which go on to reify themselves in the form of new business ventures. Inthis model an entrepreneur could be defined as “someone who acts with ambition beyondthat supportable by the resources currently under his control, in relentless pursuit of 1
 
opportunity” ( a definition common entrepreneurship professors Howard Stevenson andJeffry Timmons ). Pinchot ( 1985 ) coined the term Intrapreneurship to describeentrepreneurial-like activities inside organization and government. The concept iscommonly referred to as Corporate Entrepreneurship. The place of the disharmony-creating idiosyncratic entrepreneur in traditional economic theory ( which describes manyefficiency-based ratios assuming uniform outputs ) presents theoretic quandaries. WilliamBaumal has added greatly to this area of economic theory and was recently honored for itat the 2006 annual meeting of the American Economist Association. ( The economist,March,2006,pp 67 ). Entrepreneurship is widely regarded as an intergral player in the business culture of American life and particularly as an engine for job creation andgrowth. Robert Sobel published
The Entrepreneurs : Explorations Within the American Business Tradition in 1974.
Entrepreneurs have many of the same character traits as leaders. Similarly to theearly great man theories of leadership; however trait-based theories of entrepreneurshipare increasingly being called into question. Entrepreneurs are often contrasted withmanagers and administrators who are said to be more methodical and less prone to risk-taking. Although such person-centric models of entrepreneurship have shown to be of questionable validity, a vast but clearly dated literature studying the entrepreneurial personality found that certain traits seem to be associated with entrepreneurs : i.David McClelland ( 1961 ) described the entrepreneur as primarily motivated byan overhelming need for achievement and strong urge to build.ii.Collins and Moore ( 1970 ) studied 150 entrepreneurs and conclude that they aretough, pragmatic people driven by needs of independence and achievement. Theyseldom are willing to submit to authority.iii.Bird ( 1992 ) sees entrepreneurs as mercurial that is prone to insight, brainstorms,deceptions, ingeniousness and resourcefulness. They are cunning, opportunistic,creative and ansentimental.iv.Buseniz and Barney ( 1997 ) claim entrepreneurs are prone to overconfidence andover generalizations.2
 
v.Cole ( 1959 ) found there are four entrepreneur : the innovator, the calcutinginventor, the over-optimistic promoter and the organization builder. These typesare not related to the personality but to the type of opportunity the entrepreneur faces.vi.Burton W.Folsom, Jr. distinguishes between what he calls a political antrepreneuand a market entrepreneur. The political entrepreneur uses political influences togain income through subsidies, protectionism, government-granted monopoly,government contracts, or other such favorable arrangements with governments( see crony and corporate welfare ). The market entrepreneur operates withoutspecial favors from government.3

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