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CPS - Guide to Dyeing

CPS - Guide to Dyeing

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Published by Phoebe Hepzibah
CPS freemium on dyeing
CPS freemium on dyeing

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Published by: Phoebe Hepzibah on May 16, 2013
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11/29/2013

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Copyright
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®
magazine, Interweave Press LLC. Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
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i
 
Guide toDyeing Yarn
Learn How to Dye Yarn UsingNatural Dyeing Techniques
presents
 
Copyright
Spin.Of 
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magazine, Interweave Press LLC. Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
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2
A
n Introductionto Natural Dyes 
B y D a g m a r K l o s
Know your dyes
Dyes re either nturl (derivedro nturl resources) or synthetic(nuctured). I  ocusing onnturl dyes here, which include sub-stntive dyes, ordnt (or djective)dyes, nd vt dyes. Substntive dyes(lso clled direct dyes) redily iprt color without the id o  spe-cil dye substnce (clled n uxili-ry). Substntive dyes re wtersoluble nd include onion skins, blckwlnuts, sron, blck te, nd tur-eric. Tese dyes hve vrying de-grees o colorstness.Mordnt dyes require the id o nuxiliry substnce ( ordnt) thtllows the dye to bond with the ber.In soe cses, it will iprove the col-orstness nd possibly chnge thecolor the dyestu yields. For exple,ber dyed with dyer’s greenweed (
Ge-nista tinctoria
) nd ordnted withlu yields  wr yellow; ordnt-
W
hile synthetic dyes hve been round  little ore thn 150 yers, nturl dyes dte to the beginnings o our textile history.Reeber tht textile tht you sw in the useu or historicl exhibition tht ws de beore the 1850s?Reeber wht beutiul colors were in tht piece? Tose colors were the result o nturl dyes. In ct, nturlly dyed textiles hve been round or 6,000 yers nd ybe ore.Mother Nture provides us with ny nd vried sources or color—plnts (owers, stes, leves, roots, berries,ruits, seeds), trees nd shrubs (leves, twigs, brk, wood), lichen nd oss, s well s bugs nd shellsh. Mny providecolor nd not lwys the color you think; or exple,  red ower will usully yield  yellow color.Te three bsic rules o dyeing re: know your dye, know your ber, nd know your wter.
Once you start exploring the world o natural dyes,you’ll nd that dyestu exists in areas you mayhave never thought to look—your garden, road-side (think weeds), and spice cabinet or starters.
 
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3
ed with iron, it yields  sge green;ordnted with lu nd iron, ityields n olive green. Alu sulte,lu cette, nd iron re the only ordnts tht I use. Chroe, cop-per, nd tin re toxic, nd I choose tovoid the. Vt dyes, like substntive dyes,need no ordnt to help x color tothe ber, but they re not wter sol-uble nd require  specil process todye the ber. Te blue dyes o indigond wod nd the purple o certinollusks re vt dyes.
Know your fber 
Is it protein (nil) or cellulose(plnt)? Protein bers include l-pc, ngor, cel, cshgor, csh-ere, dog, ll, ohir, qiviut, silk,nd wool. Cellulose bers re cotton,hep, jute, linen, nettle, pper, ry-on, rie, lyocell, nd bsketkingterils such s rttn, willow, splitwood, rf, nd sweetgrss. Te typeo ber will indicte how it should bescoured nd how it should be or-dnted. Protein bers cn be hredby substnces with high pH (lkline)such s sod sh ( cooningredient in household detergents).
Scouring
Scouring (or wshing) is ipor-tnt or reoving ny dirt, lno-lin, sizing, spinning oil, or othersubstnce tht y prevent thor-ough dye dherence. Orvus Pste,Synthrpol, ild unscented deter-gents, or neutrl sops re ll co-on scouring gents. Tese productsdo not contin bleches, brighteners,or ny other dditives, produce littleo, hve  neutrl pH, nd re seor both plnt nd nil bers.Fill  dyepot with enough hot w-ter so the goods cn ove reely. Dis-solve the scouring gent in  seprtecontiner with hot wter nd dd itto the dyepot, stirring well. Plce thegoods in the dyepot, creully rott-ing the nd king sure they ll getscoured. Rinse the goods well in w-ter o the se teperture or slight-ly cooler, but be creul not to subjectwool or silk to drstic teperturechnges tht cn dge the bers orcuse elting. Do not llow the goodsto cool down in the bth s this willredeposit dirt onto the goods. Forcellulose bers (especilly cotton),use sod sh to help with the scour-ing process—dd bout
1
 ⁄ 
3
cup o sodsh or every 8 ounces o goods. Donot use sod sh on protein bers sit will hr the ber.
Mordanting
I use lu sulte or protein -bers nd lu cette or cellulosebers. Oten your supplier will pro-vide instructions or how uch or-dnt to use. I you re eger to begindyeing but hve no lu, you cn usepickling lu ro your spice cbinet(it’s ood grde nd thereore oreexpensive, but it will work). Use ny-where ro 2.5 to 5 tblespoons perpound o ber. Dissolve the lu in sll glss continer o boiling wter,dd it to the dyepot, dd the goods,nd grdully bring the pot to  si-er, holding it t  sier or nhour. urn o the het nd let thepot cool overnight. In the orning,rinse the ordnted goods in wtero the se teperture. Your goodsre now redy to dye. You cn sveyour ordnting wter to use lt-er (though you will hve to rereshit with ore ordnt) or discrd itsely (see the box bove).
Know your water 
While it is iportnt to know yourwter, I lwys suggest tht you rsttry the wter tht coes out o yourtp. Are you hppy with the color re-sults? Ech nturl dye is unique ndhs its own idiosyncrsies: soe workbest in hrd wter, soe in sot w-ter, nd with soe, it doesn’t see totter. In ddition to being used s ordnt, iron is pririly known orits bility to sdden or odiy color.I you hve iron in your wter, it willodiy the color whether you wnt itto or not. Cochinel,  very sensitive
 Just because it's a natural dye
doesn’t mean there are nosaety concerns. Protect yoursel as well as the environment. Foryoursel, use saety glasses, rubber gloves, a nonpermeable apron,and a dust mask or respirator. For the environment, neutralize dyebaths i necessary be-ore disposing. Use pH testing papers (see below) to test the pH levels o the dyebath.Add vinegar to a dyebath that is greater than 7 (basic) and ammonia to a dyebath that islower than 7 (acidic) to neutralize it. Make sure to keep small children and animals awayrom your dye area. Keep your dye utensils and pots separate rom your eating utensilsand pots. Keep all ood away rom your dye area.
Dyeing safelyMaterials list
The potential of hydrogen
(or pH) indicates the concentra-tion o hydrogen in a solution on a scale rom 0 to 14, with 7being neutral. The more hydrogen a substance contains, the moreacidic it is (low pH, such as vinegar); the less hydrogen, the more alkaline it is (high pH,such as ammonia).You can buy pH papers at pool or science-lab supply stores to test the pH level o your dyebath.
• Safety glasses or
goggles
• Rubber gloves• Nonpermeable
apron
• Dust mask or
respirator
• Measuring spoons• Pickle jars or
other glasscontainers
• Stainless steel
dyepots
• Stir stick or long
spoon
• Strainer• Heating system• Access to hot and
cold water
• Drop cloths• Gram scale• Dyestuff • Mordant
(or protein orcellulose fbers)
• Scouring
agent (such asOrvus Paste or
Synthrapol)• Drying rack 
Optional
• Ammonia• Vinegar• pH testing papers
What is pH?

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