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CPS - Guide to Dyeing

CPS - Guide to Dyeing

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Published by Phoebe Hepzibah
CPS freemium on dyeing
CPS freemium on dyeing

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Published by: Phoebe Hepzibah on May 16, 2013
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magazine, Interweave Press LLC. Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
Guide toDyeing Yarn
Learn How to Dye Yarn UsingNatural Dyeing Techniques
magazine, Interweave Press LLC. Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
n Introductionto Natural Dyes 
B y D a g m a r K l o s
Know your dyes
Dyes re either nturl (derivedro nturl resources) or synthetic(nuctured). I  ocusing onnturl dyes here, which include sub-stntive dyes, ordnt (or djective)dyes, nd vt dyes. Substntive dyes(lso clled direct dyes) redily iprt color without the id o  spe-cil dye substnce (clled n uxili-ry). Substntive dyes re wtersoluble nd include onion skins, blckwlnuts, sron, blck te, nd tur-eric. Tese dyes hve vrying de-grees o colorstness.Mordnt dyes require the id o nuxiliry substnce ( ordnt) thtllows the dye to bond with the ber.In soe cses, it will iprove the col-orstness nd possibly chnge thecolor the dyestu yields. For exple,ber dyed with dyer’s greenweed (
Ge-nista tinctoria
) nd ordnted withlu yields  wr yellow; ordnt-
hile synthetic dyes hve been round  little ore thn 150 yers, nturl dyes dte to the beginnings o our textile history.Reeber tht textile tht you sw in the useu or historicl exhibition tht ws de beore the 1850s?Reeber wht beutiul colors were in tht piece? Tose colors were the result o nturl dyes. In ct, nturlly dyed textiles hve been round or 6,000 yers nd ybe ore.Mother Nture provides us with ny nd vried sources or color—plnts (owers, stes, leves, roots, berries,ruits, seeds), trees nd shrubs (leves, twigs, brk, wood), lichen nd oss, s well s bugs nd shellsh. Mny providecolor nd not lwys the color you think; or exple,  red ower will usully yield  yellow color.Te three bsic rules o dyeing re: know your dye, know your ber, nd know your wter.
Once you start exploring the world o natural dyes,you’ll nd that dyestu exists in areas you mayhave never thought to look—your garden, road-side (think weeds), and spice cabinet or starters.
magazine, Interweave Press LLC. Not to be reprinted. All rights reserved.
ed with iron, it yields  sge green;ordnted with lu nd iron, ityields n olive green. Alu sulte,lu cette, nd iron re the only ordnts tht I use. Chroe, cop-per, nd tin re toxic, nd I choose tovoid the. Vt dyes, like substntive dyes,need no ordnt to help x color tothe ber, but they re not wter sol-uble nd require  specil process todye the ber. Te blue dyes o indigond wod nd the purple o certinollusks re vt dyes.
Know your fber 
Is it protein (nil) or cellulose(plnt)? Protein bers include l-pc, ngor, cel, cshgor, csh-ere, dog, ll, ohir, qiviut, silk,nd wool. Cellulose bers re cotton,hep, jute, linen, nettle, pper, ry-on, rie, lyocell, nd bsketkingterils such s rttn, willow, splitwood, rf, nd sweetgrss. Te typeo ber will indicte how it should bescoured nd how it should be or-dnted. Protein bers cn be hredby substnces with high pH (lkline)such s sod sh ( cooningredient in household detergents).
Scouring (or wshing) is ipor-tnt or reoving ny dirt, lno-lin, sizing, spinning oil, or othersubstnce tht y prevent thor-ough dye dherence. Orvus Pste,Synthrpol, ild unscented deter-gents, or neutrl sops re ll co-on scouring gents. Tese productsdo not contin bleches, brighteners,or ny other dditives, produce littleo, hve  neutrl pH, nd re seor both plnt nd nil bers.Fill  dyepot with enough hot w-ter so the goods cn ove reely. Dis-solve the scouring gent in  seprtecontiner with hot wter nd dd itto the dyepot, stirring well. Plce thegoods in the dyepot, creully rott-ing the nd king sure they ll getscoured. Rinse the goods well in w-ter o the se teperture or slight-ly cooler, but be creul not to subjectwool or silk to drstic teperturechnges tht cn dge the bers orcuse elting. Do not llow the goodsto cool down in the bth s this willredeposit dirt onto the goods. Forcellulose bers (especilly cotton),use sod sh to help with the scour-ing process—dd bout
cup o sodsh or every 8 ounces o goods. Donot use sod sh on protein bers sit will hr the ber.
I use lu sulte or protein -bers nd lu cette or cellulosebers. Oten your supplier will pro-vide instructions or how uch or-dnt to use. I you re eger to begindyeing but hve no lu, you cn usepickling lu ro your spice cbinet(it’s ood grde nd thereore oreexpensive, but it will work). Use ny-where ro 2.5 to 5 tblespoons perpound o ber. Dissolve the lu in sll glss continer o boiling wter,dd it to the dyepot, dd the goods,nd grdully bring the pot to  si-er, holding it t  sier or nhour. urn o the het nd let thepot cool overnight. In the orning,rinse the ordnted goods in wtero the se teperture. Your goodsre now redy to dye. You cn sveyour ordnting wter to use lt-er (though you will hve to rereshit with ore ordnt) or discrd itsely (see the box bove).
Know your water 
While it is iportnt to know yourwter, I lwys suggest tht you rsttry the wter tht coes out o yourtp. Are you hppy with the color re-sults? Ech nturl dye is unique ndhs its own idiosyncrsies: soe workbest in hrd wter, soe in sot w-ter, nd with soe, it doesn’t see totter. In ddition to being used s ordnt, iron is pririly known orits bility to sdden or odiy color.I you hve iron in your wter, it willodiy the color whether you wnt itto or not. Cochinel,  very sensitive
 Just because it's a natural dye
doesn’t mean there are nosaety concerns. Protect yoursel as well as the environment. Foryoursel, use saety glasses, rubber gloves, a nonpermeable apron,and a dust mask or respirator. For the environment, neutralize dyebaths i necessary be-ore disposing. Use pH testing papers (see below) to test the pH levels o the dyebath.Add vinegar to a dyebath that is greater than 7 (basic) and ammonia to a dyebath that islower than 7 (acidic) to neutralize it. Make sure to keep small children and animals awayrom your dye area. Keep your dye utensils and pots separate rom your eating utensilsand pots. Keep all ood away rom your dye area.
Dyeing safelyMaterials list
The potential of hydrogen
(or pH) indicates the concentra-tion o hydrogen in a solution on a scale rom 0 to 14, with 7being neutral. The more hydrogen a substance contains, the moreacidic it is (low pH, such as vinegar); the less hydrogen, the more alkaline it is (high pH,such as ammonia).You can buy pH papers at pool or science-lab supply stores to test the pH level o your dyebath.
• Safety glasses or
• Rubber gloves• Nonpermeable
• Dust mask or
• Measuring spoons• Pickle jars or
other glasscontainers
• Stainless steel
• Stir stick or long
• Strainer• Heating system• Access to hot and
cold water
• Drop cloths• Gram scale• Dyestuff • Mordant
(or protein orcellulose fbers)
• Scouring
agent (such asOrvus Paste or
Synthrapol)• Drying rack 
• Ammonia• Vinegar• pH testing papers
What is pH?

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