5/17/13FMR • Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kuch • Fachbereich Physikwww.physik.fu-berlin.de/einrichtungen/ag/ag-kuch/research/techniques/fmr/index.html1/2
Fachbereich Physik/Wiss. Arbeitsgruppen
Prof. Dr. Wolfgang Kuch
Ferromagnetic Resonance (FMR)
FMR is a method to measure magnetic properties by detecting the precessional motion of themagnetization in a ferromagnetic sample. It is thus related to the electron paramagnetic resonancetechnique. From a macroscopic point of view, the applied static magnetic field H
causes the totalmagnetic moment to precess around the direction of the local field H
, before relaxation processesdamp this precession and the magnetization aligns with H
. If the sample is irradiated with atransverse rf field (microwaves of typically 1–35 GHz), and if the rf frequency coincides with theprecessional frequency, the resonance condition is fulfilled and the microwave power is absorbed bythe sample. The motion of the magnetization is described by the Landau-Lifshitz-Gilbert equation: The green part corresponds to the precession. The yellow partintroduces a viscous damping (Gilbert damping constant G). Theeffective magnetic field H
includes the applied DC field, the rf microwave magnetic field component, the demagnetizing field(shape anisotropy) and the magnetocrystalline anisotropy field. γ isthe gyromagnetic ratio γ =gµ
/ħ. Microscopically, the H field creates a Zeeman splitting of the energylevels, and the microwave excites magnetic dipole transitionsbetween these split levels. Since it is difficult to vary themicrowave frequency over larger ranges, the DC magnetic field H
is varied instead. Usually the absorption derivative is measured. The resonance signalresembles a Lorentzian lineshape. The resonance field position H
depends on the angles, anisotropy parameters, g-factor, and magnetizationof the sample. The linewidth ΔH is directly connected to the relaxation processes. Inultrathin films, Gilbert dampingis commonly used to describe the relaxation.
But several other possible relaxation pathsare also known, e.g. two-magnon scattering, spin-pumping effect, etc., which can contribute to thelinewidth. The anisotropy constants can be easily deduced from angle dependentmeasurements of single crystalline samples. For magnetic multilayers, alsothe interlayer exchange coupling constant can be determined by FMR inabsolute units. The sample is kept under UHV inside a quartz glass finger connected to the UHV chamber. It fits into the microwave cavity. The microwavecomponents and the electromagnet coils are outside the vacuum and therefore conveniently accessible or removable. Thus, the samples canbe stepwise prepared and measured in situ under UHV consitions. Especially for magnetic multilayers this is an advantage over conventionalFMR set-ups.