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Z Transform - control

# Z Transform - control

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EE452 Digital Control Dr. Salah Foda Page 1
The Z-Transform
Sampled Data
The generalized function
(t) (also known as the impulse function) is useful in the definitionand analysis of sampled-data signals. Figure 1 below shows a simplified graph of an impulse.Figure 1: Simplified graph of an impulse functionFor an impulse, it can be shown that
)f(tdt)t
δ(t
f(t)
00
(1)This property is called the sifting property and may be used to define a sampled signal f
*
(t) asshown in Figure 2 below. The sampled signal is basically f(t) modulated by the pulse trainp(t) given byp(t) =

n
nT)
δ(t
(2)Figure 2: Ideal impulse samplingTherefore
*
(t) = f(t) p(t) =

n
nT)
δ(t
f(nT)
(3)So that the sampled signal is an amplitude modulated train of pulses. If each pulse is replacedwith the number f(nT), it is then called discrete-time signal. Finally, if f(t) is defined onlyover t
0, the summation in Eq. (3) is taken over [0,
].
(t-t
0
)t
0
ttttftt
*
(t

EE452 Digital Control Dr. Salah Foda Page 2
The z-Domain
The Laplace and z-transforms are closely related techniques. To demonstrate this, we willstart with the Laplace transform and show how it can be changed into the z-transform. Thesingle-sided Laplace transform of the time domain f(t) is defined as:
0
f(t)F(s)
dt e
st
(4)where F(s) is the s-domain representation of the signal f(t). The above equation analyzes thetime domain signal in terms of sine and cosine waves that have an exponentially changingamplitudes. This can be understood by using the substitution s =
+j
so that the Laplacetransform becomes:
0
}{f(t)),F(
dt ee
j
 
 
(5)Figure 3: An interpretation of F(
,) for a unit step u(t)Now, take the Laplace transform of the sampled-data signal f
*
(t) given by Eq. (3)
dt edt e
st nst
000**
nT)
δ(t
f(nT)(t)(s)F

nTsn
e
0
f(nT)
f(0) + f(T) e
-sT
+ f(2T) e
-2sT
+ f(3T) e
-3sT
+

(6)This equation is our starting point to define the z-transform of a sampled signal. It also relatesin a direct way the s-transform and the z-transform as will be soon illustrated. Define theforward delay operator z = e
sT
and rewrite Eq. (6) as follows:F(z)
nn
z
0
f(nT)
f(0) + f(T) z
-1
+ f(2T) z
-2
+ f(3T) z
-3
+
(7)where F(z) is called the z-transform of the discrete signal f(nT) or
Z
{f(t)}.

EE452 Digital Control Dr. Salah Foda Page 3
Example:
Find the z-
transform for the unit step u(t)=1 for t ≥ 0 and is zero for negative time.

S
OLUTION
:
Substitute for u(t) in Eq. (7) to getU(z)
nn
z
0
u(nT)
1+ z
-1
+ z
-2
+ z
-3
+
=
1
11
z
=
1
z z
given that |z| >1.
Properties of the z-transform:
(1)

Linearity
: Given f(t) and g(t) with corresponding F(z) and G(z), then for arbitraryconstants
α, β
IɌ or ₵

Z
{α f(t)+ β g(t)}= αF(z)+ βG(z)
(8)(2)

Translation
: For m > 0
Z
{f(nT+mT)}= z
m
F(z)
z
m
0
z
m-1
1

zf
m-1
(9)and
Z
{f(nT
mT)}= z
m
F(z)(10)P
ROOF
:
Z
{f(nT+mT)}=
nn
z
0
mT)f(nT
= z
m
)(0
mT)f(nT
mnn
z
= z
m
)1(1m0m
mmn
z z
= z
m
F(z)
z
m
0
z
m
1
1

z f
m-1
Proof for the second case is similar except that f(nT) is assumed zero for negative indices.(3)

Complex Differentiation
:
Z
{nT f(nT)}=
Tz dF(z)/dz(11)P
ROOF
: Note that dF(z)/dz =
1
z
2

2f
2
z
3

3f
2
z
4

Example:
Find the z-transform for the ramp function r(t) = t for t
≥ 0.

S
OLUTION
:
Using complex differentiation propertyR(z) =
zT dU(z)/dz =
zT d(
1
z z
)/dz =
zT
2
)1(1
z
=
2
)1(
zTz
(4)

Frequency Scaling
:
Z
{
n
f(nT)}=F(
1
z) (12)P
ROOF
: Using translation property
Z
{
n
f(nT)}=
nn
z
)(
10n

= F(
1
z)

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