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Arab–Khazar wars

Arab–Khazar wars

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Published by: dzimmer6 on May 17, 2013
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ArabKhazar wars1
Arab
 –
Khazar wars
Arab
 –
Khazar wars
Part of the Muslim conquestsMap of the Khazar Khaganate in the 7th
 – 
9th centuries
Date
642
 – 
799
Location
Ciscaucasia (esp. Dagestan), Transcaucasia (esp. Azerbaijan, Iranian Azerbaijan)
[1]
Result
Status quo ante bellum
Territorialchanges
Caucasus temporarily occupied by Umayyads; Azerbaijan temporarily occupied by Khazars
Belligerents
Khazar
 
KhaganateUmayyad Caliphate (and later Abbasid Caliphate)
Commanders and leaders
Barjik 
 
Abd ar-Rahman ibn RabiahMaslamah ibn Abd al-Malik al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami
 
Marwan ibn Muhammad
The
Arab
 –
Khazar wars
were a series of campaigns, usually grouped into the First (с. 642/652)
[2]
and Second (c.722-737),
[3]
fought between the armies of the Khazar Khaganate and the Umayyad Caliphate (as well as its Abbasidsuccessor) and their respective vassals.During the 7th and 8th centuries the Khazars fought a series of wars against the Umayyad Caliphate, which wasattempting simultaneously to expand its influence into Transoxiana and the Caucasus. The first war was fought in the640s and early 650s and ended with the defeat of an Arab force led by Abd ar-Rahman ibn Rabiah outside theKhazar town of Balanjar, after a battle in which both sides used siege engines on the others' troops.Hostilities broke out again with the Caliphate in the 710s, with raids back and forth across the Caucasus but fewdecisive battles. The Khazars, led by a prince named Barjik, invaded northwestern Iran and defeated the Umayyadforces at Ardabil in 730, killing the Arab governor Al-Djarrah al-Hakami and briefly occupying the town. They weredefeated the next year at Mosul, where Barjik directed Khazar forces from a throne mounted with al-Djarrah'ssevered head, and Barjik was killed. Arab armies led first by the Arab prince Maslamah ibn Abd al-Malik and thenby Marwan ibn Muhammad (later Caliph Marwan II) poured across the Caucasus and eventually (in 737) defeated aKhazar army led by Hazer Tarkhan, briefly occupying Atil itself. The instability of the Umayyad regime made apermanent occupation impossible; the Arab armies withdrew and Khazar independence was re-asserted.
 
ArabKhazar wars2The last major battle between Khazar and Caliphate forces took place in 799/800, when a Khazar army invadedAzerbaijan and Arran, and was driven back by the local governor, Yazid ibn Mazyad al-Shaybani. Relations betweenKhazaria and the Caliphate appear to have improved over time, such that by the tenth century King Joseph of theKhazars reported to Hasdai ibn Shaprut that the Khazars defended the region of the Caspian littoral from attacks bythe Rus.
Background and strategic motives
The Arab
 – 
Khazar wars were part of a long series of military conflicts between thenomadic peoples of thePontic-Caspian steppe and the more settled regions south of the Caucasus range, dating back to Antiquity. The twogreat passes over the Caucasus, the Darial Pass ("Alan Gates") in the centre and the Pass of Derbent ("CaspianGates") had been used as invasion routes since Classical times, and their defence against the northern barbarianhordes came to be regarded as one of the chief duties of imperial regimes to the south. Thus the shahs of the SassanidEmpire, from Peroz I (r. 457
 – 
484) to Khosrau I (r. 531
 – 
579), built a long line of fortifications from the Caucasus tothe Caspian Sea.
[1][4]
Derbent itself, which would feature prominently in the Arab
 – 
Khazar conflict, was built by thePersians in the early 6th century as a strategic choke-point and gateway (its name in Persian,
 Dar-band 
, means "Knotof the Gates") between the north and south.
[2]
This is reflected in the popular belief among Middle Eastern culturesthat Alexander the Great had with divine assistance barred the Caucasus against the hordes of "Gog and Magog", anecho of invasions by the Scythians and the Huns.
[5]
Eventually, the Khazars would take their place, and earlymedieval writers came to identify the Khazars with Gog and Magog.
[6]
Since the nascent Caliphate regarded itself as the heir of the Sassanid (and to a lesser extent, Byzantine) tradition and"civilizational consciousness", the Arab caliphs alsoadoptedthe notion that it was their duty "to protect the settled,i.e. the civilized world from the northern barbarian" (G. Mako). To this imperativewas added the Muslim concept of division of the world into the "House of Islam" (
 Dar al-Islam
) and the "House of War" (
 Dar al-Harb
), to which thepagan Turkic nomads were consigned.
[7]
Consequently the eastern Caucasus range also became the main theatre of the Arab
 – 
Khazar conflict, with the Arab armies aiming to gain control of Derbent (known in Arabic as Babal-Abwab, "Gate of Gates") and the Khazar cities of Balanjar and Samandar, whose location has yet to be establishedwith certainty. Both of the latter are referred to as Khazar capitals by different Arab writers, and may havefunctioned as winter and summer capitals respectively. It was only later, under the impact of the Arab attacks, thatthe Khazars moved their capital further north, to Atil on the mouths of the Volga.
[8]
To an extent, the Arab
 – 
Khazar wars were also linked to the struggle of the Caliphate against the Byzantine Empirealong the eastern fringes of Asia Minor, a theatre of war which adjoined the Caucasus. The Byzantine emperorspursued close relations with the Khazars, which amounted to a virtual alliance for mostof the period in question,including such exceptional acts as the marriage of emperor Justinian II to a Khazar princess in 705.
[9][10]
Thepossibility of the Khazars linking up with the Byzantines through Armenia was a grave threat to the Caliphate,especially given its proximity to the Umayyad metropolitan province of Syria.
[1]
This did not materialize, andArmenia was left largely quiet, with the Umayyads granting it wide-ranging autonomy and the Byzantines likewiserefraining from active campaigning there.
[11]
Although some Byzantinists, notably Dimitri Obolensky, suggestedthat the Arab
 – 
Khazar wars were motivated by a Muslim desire to outflank the Byzantine defences from the north,this idea is not borne out by the limited nature of the conflict before until the 720s.
[12]
It is more probable that theByzantines encouraged the Khazars to attack the Caliphate to relieve the mounting pressure on their own easternfrontier in the early 8th century,
[13]
as indeed they profited considerably from the diversion of the Muslim armiesnorthwards in the 720s and 730s, resulting in another marriage alliance, between the future emperor Constantine V(r. 741
 – 
775) and the Khazar princess Tzitzak in 733.
[14][15]
The issue of control over the northern branch of the Silk Road by the Caliphate has been suggested as a furthermotive for the conflict, but G. Mako disputes this claim by pointing out that warfare declined at precisely the periodof the greatest expansion of traffic along the Silk Road, i.e. after the middle of the 8th century.
[16]
 
ArabKhazar wars3
First conflicts: the First Arab
 –
Khazar War and aftermath
The Khazars themselves first campaigned in the Caucasus during the Byzantine
 – 
Sassanid War of 602
 – 
628, as asubject of the Western Turkic Khaganate. The Turks sacked Derbent and joined the Byzantines in their siege of Tiflis. Their contribution proved decisive for the eventual Byzantine victory in the war. For a few years afterwards,until ca. 632, the Khazars exercised some control over Iberia and Albania
 – 
Azerbaijan.
[17]
The Khazars and the Arabs came into conflict as a result of the first phase of Muslim expansion: by 640 the Arabshad reached Armenia,
[18]
and in 642, they launched their first raid across the Caucasus under Abd ar-Rahman ibnRabiah.
[2][8]
In 645/646, the Arabs defeated a Byzantine army in Armenia, reinforced with Khazar and Alancontingents.
[18]
It was followed by an attempt in 651
 – 
652 to advance onto the Khazar capital, Balanjar, but theArabs were heavily defeated in battle before the city, resulting in the death of Abd ar-Rahman's brother Salman and4,000 Muslim troops. Three years later, the Khazars repelled a retaliatory campaign under Habib ibn Maslama.
[2][8]
Due to the outbreak of the First Muslim Civil War and the Arab priorities on other fronts, the Muslims refrainedfrom repeating an attack on the Khazars until the early 8th century.
[19]
The Khazars, on their part, only launched afew raids into the Transcaucasian principalities that were loosely under Muslim dominion: in 661
 – 
662, theylaunched a raid into Caucasian Albania but were defeated by the local prince; in 683
 – 
685 (also a time of civil war inthe Muslim world), a large-scale raid across Transcaucasia was more successful, capturing much booty and manyprisoners.
[8][20]
Climax: the Second Arab
 –
Khazar War
Map of the Caucasus region ca. 750
Relations between the two powers remained relativelyquiet until the early years of the 8th century, by whichtime the stage for the new round of conflicts was set.Byzantine political authority had been marginalized,and the Caliphate tightened its grip on Armenia afterthe suppression of a large-scale rebellion in 705. WithArmenia annexed into the Caliphate, the Arabs and theKhazars faced each other for control of the Caucasus.Only the western parts of Transcaucasia, comprisingmodern Georgia, remained free from direct control byeither of the two rival powers.
[21]
War broke out in713/714, when the Umayyad general Maslamah, a sonof the Caliph Abd al-Malik (r. 685
 – 
705), conqueredDerbent. Maslamah then drove deeper into Khazarterritory, trying, without success, to subdue the "Huns" living north of the Caucasus. The Khazars opposed himunder the general Alp', but also launched raids to the south into Albania in response. In 717, the Khazars raided inforce into Iranian Azerbaijan, but they were driven back by the Arabs under Hatin ibn al-Nu'man.
[3][8]
Escalation of the conflict
In 722, the main phase of the war began. In the previous winter, 30,000 Khazarslaunched an invasion of Arab-ruled Armenia, and inflicted a crushing defeat on the mostly Syrian army of the local governor Mi'laq ibn Saffaral-Bahrani at Marj al-Hijara in February/March 722. In response, Caliph Yazid II (r. 720
 – 
724) sent one of his mostcelebrated generals, al-Jarrah ibn Abdallah al-Hakami, with 25,000 Syrian troops north. Al-Jarrah was swiftlysuccessful in driving the Khazars back across the Caucasus, recovered Derbent and even advanced on Balanjar. TheKhazars tried to defend their capital by ringing the citadel with a laager of wagons, but the Arabs broke it apart andstormed the city on 21 August 722 (or 723). Most of Balanjar's inhabitants were killed or enslaved, but a few

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