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GnanaSekar. A
DBA -
1
 
T
ABLE
O
F
C
ONTENTS
1. O
RACLE
A
RCHITECTURAL
C
OMPONENTS
.......................................................................3
Physical Files
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
3
 Backgroung Processes
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
....
3
 Memory Area (SGA)
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
........
4
 How Oracle processes a query
................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
4
 How Oracle processes a DML statement 
................................ ................................ ................................
....
4
 How Oracle processes a COMMIT statement 
................................ ................................ ............................
5
2. S
TARTUP AND
S
HUTDOWN A
D
ATABASE
.......................................................................5
Parameter File
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ .................
5
STARTUP Command 
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
.......
SHUTDOWN Command 
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
.
 Basic Dynamic Performance View
................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
 How to terminate a user session
................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
3. C
REATE A
D
ATABASE
....................................................................................................7
STEP 1 . Set the operating system variables.
................................ ................................ ..............................
STEP 2. Prepare the parameter file.
................................ ................................ ................................ .............
8
STEP 3. Start the instance in NOMOUNT stage.
................................ ................................ .......................
8
STEP 4. Create the database
................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
8
STEP 5. Run scripts to generate the data dictionary and accomplish postcreation steps.
.................
8
Troubles Shooting of Create Database
................................ ................................ ................................
........
9
What you get after the database is created 
................................ ................................ ................................
.
9
4. M
AINTAINING THE
C
ONTROL
F
ILE
.................................................................................9
Features and Contents of Control File
................................ ................................ ................................
........
9
 Multiplex the Control File
................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
9
5. M
AINTAINING
R
EDO
L
OG
F
ILES
.....................................................................................9
Features and Contents of Redo Log Files
................................ ................................ ................................
...
9
Views about Redo Log Files
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
11
 Maintenance Operations on Redo Log files
................................ ................................ ..............................
11
6. T
ABLESPACES AND
D
ATA
F
ILES
...................................................................................12
 Logical and Physical Structure of a database
................................ ................................ ..........................
12
SYSTEM and Non-SYSTEM Tablespaces
................................ ................................ ................................
..
13
Creating Tablespaces
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
...
13
Four Methods to increase the size of tablespaces
................................ ................................ ....................
13
 READ-ONLY Tablespace
................................ ................................ ................................ .............................
14
 Dropping Tablespaces
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
..
15
 Dictionary Views about tablespaces and data files
................................ ................................ .................
15
7. S
TORAGE
S
TRUCTURE AND
R
ELATIONSHIPS
................................................................16
Storage Clause Precedence
................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
16 
 Extent Allocation and Deallocation
................................ ................................ ................................
...........
16 
 Block Space Utilization Parameters
................................ ................................ ................................
...........
16 
 Dictionay Views about storage
................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
17 
8. R
OLLBACK
S
EGMENT
...................................................................................................18
Purpose of Rollback Segment 
................................ ................................ ................................ ......................
18
 How transactions use Rollback Segment 
................................ ................................ ................................
...
18
Creating Rollback Segment 
................................ ................................ ................................ .........................
19
Offline and Drop Rollback Segment 
................................ ................................ ................................
...........
20
 Dictionary Views about Rollback Segment 
................................ ................................ ...............................
20
9. T
EMPORARY
S
EGMENT
................................................................................................21
Temporary Segments in a Temporary Tablespace
................................ ................................ ...................
21
Views about temporary segments
................................ ................................ ................................ ................
21
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GnanaSekar. A
DBA -
2
 
10. M
ANAGING
T
ABLES
...................................................................................................21
 ROWID in Oracle 8
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
.......
21
 High Water Mark 
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
...........
22
 ANALYZE TABLE command 
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
23
 DBMS_ROWID Package
................................ ................................ ................................ ..............................
23
11. M
ANAGING
I
NDEXES
..................................................................................................24
 B-Tree Index
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
24
 Reverse Key Index
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
..........
24
 Bitmap Index
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
24
When we need to rebuild indexes?
................................ ................................ ................................ .............
25
 ANALYZE INDEX command 
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
25
12. M
AINTAINING
D
ATA
I
NTEGRITY
................................................................................25
Types of Constraints
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
......
25
Three States of Constraints
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
26 
 Deferred and non-deferred constraints
................................ ................................ ................................
.....
27 
13. C
LUSTERS AND
I
NDEX
-O
RGANIZED TABLES
..............................................................28
Creating Index Cluster 
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
.
28
Creating Hash Clusters
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
28
 Index-Organized Tables
................................ ................................ ................................ ...............................
29
14. SQL*L
OADER
, IMPORT/EXPORT.........................................................................30
SQL*Loader Features
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
...
30
Files Used by SQL*Loader 
................................ ................................ ................................ ..........................
30
Comparing Direct and Conventional Path Loads
................................ ................................ ...................
31
Uses of Export and Import 
................................ ................................ ................................ ...........................
31
15. M
ANAGING
D
ATABASE
U
SERS
...................................................................................32
Checklist for Creating Users
................................ ................................ ................................ ........................
32
 Examples and Guidelines about users
................................ ................................ ................................
.......
32
 Dictionary Views about Users
................................ ................................ ................................ .....................
33
16. M
ANAGING
U
SER
P
ROFILES
.......................................................................................33
User Profiles and resource limits
................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
33
 How to enforce resource limit using profiles
................................ ................................ ............................
34
Password Management 
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
35
 Dictionary Views about user profiles
................................ ................................ ................................
.........
35
17. M
ANAGING
P
RIVILEGES
.............................................................................................36
SYSTEM Privileges
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
........
36 
 Examples about system privileges
................................ ................................ ................................ ..............
36 
 Dictionary Views about system privileges
................................ ................................ ................................
.
37 
Object Privileges
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ............
38
 Examples about object privileges
................................ ................................ ................................ ...............
40
 Dictionary Views about object privileges
................................ ................................ ................................
..
40
18. M
ANAGING
R
OLES
.....................................................................................................40
What is role?
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................ ...................
40
 Manapulating Roles
................................ ................................ ................................ ................................
......
41
F
REQUENTLY
A
SKED
Q
UESTIONS IN
O
RACLE
8 D
ATABASE
A
DMINISTRATION
................42
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GnanaSekar. A
DBA -
3
 
1. Oracle Architectural Components 
Physical Files
Data files
store the data dictionary, user objects, and before-images of data that are modified bycurrent transactions. A database has at least one data file.
Redo logfiles
contain a record of changes made to the database to ensure reconstruction of the datain case of failures. A database requires at least two redo log files.
Control files
contain the information needed to maintain and verify database integrity. A database
needs at least one control file.
Backgroung Processes
The background processes in an instance perform common functions that are needed to service therequests from several concurrent users, without compromising the integrity and performance of thewhole system. Each Oracle instance may use several background processes, depending on the
configuration, but every instance comprises these five background processes by default:
DBWR
The server process records changes to rollback and data blocks in the buffer cache.The database writer (DBWR) writes the dirty buffers from the database buffer cache
to the data files. It ensures that sufficient number of free buffers—buffers that can be
overwritten when server processes need to read in blocks from the data files—areavailable in the database buffer cache. Database performance is improved becauseserver processes only make changes in the buffer cache, and the DBWR defers
writing to the
data files until one of the following events occur:
·
 
The number of dirty buffers reaches a threshold value
·
 
A process scans a specified number of blocks when scanning for free buffers and
cannot find any
·
 
A timeout occurs
·
 
A DBWR checkpoint can be triggered by various events such as closing
·
 
of the database, (Checkpoint is a means of synchronizing the database buffer
cache with the data file.)
LGWR
The Log Writer (LGWR) is a background process that writes entries from the redolog buffer into the redo log files. The LGWR performs sequential writes to the redo
log file under the following situations:
·
 
When the redo log buffer is one-third full
·
 
When a timeout occurs (every three seconds)
·
 
Before DBWR writes modified blocks in the database buffer cache to the
·
 
data files
·
 
When a transaction commits
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