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Anatomy and Physiology

Anatomy and Physiology

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Published by jia88

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Categories:Types, School Work
Published by: jia88 on Apr 14, 2009
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01/31/2013

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BRAIN
 
 The image on the left is the outside of the brain, viewed from the side, showing themajor lobes (frontal, parietal, temporal and occipital) and the brain stem structures(pons, medulla oblongata, and cerebellum). The image on the right is a side-view showing the location of the limbic systeminside the brain. The limbic system consists of a number of structures, including thefornix, hippocampus, cingulate gyrus, amygdala, the parahippocampal gyrus andparts of the thalamus.
Amygdala
– limbic structure involved in many brain functions, including emotion,learning and memory. It is part of a system that processes "reflexive" emotions likefear and anxiety.
Cerebellum
– governs movement.
Cingulate gyrus
– plays a role in processing conscious emotional experience.
Fornix
– an arch-like structure that connects the hippocampus to other parts of thelimbic system.
Frontal lobe
– helps control skilled muscle movements, mood, planning for thefuture, setting goals and judging priorities.
Hippocampus
– plays a significant role in the formation of long-term memories.
Medulla oblongata
– contains centers for the control of vital processes such asheart rate, respiration, blood pressure, and swallowing.
Limbic system
a group of interconnected structures that mediate emotions,learning and memory.
Occipital lobe
– helps process visual information.
Parahippocampal gyrus
– an important connecting pathway of the limbic system.Parietal lobe – receives and processes information about temperature, taste, touch,and movement coming from the rest of the body. Reading and arithmetic are alsoprocessed in this region.
Pons
– contains centers for the control of vital processes, including respiration andcardiovascular functions. It also is involved in the coordination of eye movementsand balance.
Temporal lobe
– processes hearing, memory and language functions.
Thalamus
– a major relay station between the senses and the cortex (the outerlayer of the brain consisting of the parietal, occipital, frontal and temporal lobes).
 
Divisions of the BrainMesencephalon- midbrain
Function:Controls Responses to Sight,Eye Movement, Pupil Dilation, Body Movement,HearingLocation: The mesencephalon is the most rostral portion of the brainstem. It is locatedbetween the forebrain and brainstem.Structures: The mesencephalon consists of the tectum and tegmentum.
Prosencephalon
- forebrainFunction:Chewing ,Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body, Equilibrium, Eye Movement,Vision, Facial Sensation, Hearing, Phonation, Intelligence, Memory, Personality,Respiration, Salivation,Swallowing , Smell, TasteLocation: The prosencephalon is the mostanteriorportion of the brain. It is also called theforebrain.Structures: The prosencephalon consists of thetelencephalon, striatum,diencephalon,lateral  ventricleandthird ventricle.
Diencephalon
Function:Chewing , Directs Sense Impulses Throughout the Body, Equilibrium, Eye Movement,Vision, Facial Sensation, Hearing, Phonation, Respiration, Salivation, Swallowing,Smell, TasteLocation: The diencephalon is located between the cerebral hemispheres and above themidbrain.Structures: The diencephalon includes the thalamus, hypothalamus, the optic tracts, opticchiasma, infundibulum, Ventricle III, mammillary bodies, posterior pituitary glandand the pineal gland.

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