Oracle ArchitectureThere are two terms that are used with Oracle
- A collection of physical operating system files
- A set of Oracle processes and a SGAThese two are very closely related but a database can be mounted and opened by many instances. An instancemay mount and open only a single database at any one point in time.
The File Structure
The are five types of files that make up a database
- These files tells Oracle were to find the control files. Also they detail how big themeory area will be, etc
- These hold the tables indexes and all other segments
Redo Log Files
- Our transaction logs
- Details the location of data and log files and other relevant information about their state.
- used for disk-based sorting and temporary storage
- Used to authenticate users logining into the database.
The parameter file for Oracle is the commonly know file init.ora (or init<oracle sid>.ora). The file itself is avery simple plain text file (on oracle 9i is can also be a binary file) and details information regarding block size,location of the control files, etc. On a windows server the file can be found in[ORACLE_HOME]/admin/<sid>/pfile but can be in any location by using the "
startup pfile = <location>
" .Sometimes a parameter may start with a underscore this normally refers to a undocumented parameter and isnormally only requested by Oracle support.
Normally there are at least two data files, one for
data and the other for
Segments - are database objects, a table, a index, rollback segments. Every object that consumes space isa segment. Segments themselves consist of one or more extents.
Extents - are a contiguous allocation of space in a file. Extents, in turn, consist of blocks
Blocks - are the smallest unit of space allocation in Oracle. Blocks normally are 2KB, 4KB or 8KB insize but can be larger.The relationship between segments, extents and blocks looks like this