Roman Catholicism appeals to church tradition, while protestants appeal only to the Scriptures as authoritative. When the Roman Catholicchurch declares a "dogma" that contradicts the Bible we "protest" the change.Here is the church tradition before 200AD:
90AD Clement of Rome, the fourth Pope, Corinthians 44 - The replacements of the apostles must be elected by representativesfrom the whole church. (This was not possible after 1054)
170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.2 - Heretics allege truth was delivered not by written documents, but by oral tradition.Without this oral tradition you can't properly interpret the Scriptures.
170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 3.3 - The apostles did not pass down any hidden wisdom, just the Scriptures. If an older writtendocument contradicts the newer written document we believe the older.
170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.26 - Obey the presbyters who are in the church, -- those who possess the succession from theapostles; together with the succession of the episcopate, who have received the certain gift of truth. But it is also incumbent to holdin suspicion others who depart from the primitive succession. Avoid all who do not hold to the doctrine of the apostles, including presbyters.
170AD Irenaeus, Against Heresies 4.33 - The doctrine of the apostles, has been guarded and preserved without any forging of Scriptures, as a very complete system of doctrine. Neither receive addition to or suffer curtailment from its truths. Read the Wordof God without falsification, lawfully and diligently explaining them in harmony with the rest of the Scriptures.
177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata book 2.4 - There never was any secret doctrine handed down by the apostles, just theScriptures. Only the heretics say there is secret doctrine from the apostles which you must know to correctly understand theScripture.
177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 2.17 - To be true, a thing must be proven scientifically, by comparison and testing.
177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7.15 - True Christians do not divide the body of Christ, but heretics try to.
177AD Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 7.16 - Do not accept any teaching that is not clearly taught in the Scriptures. It must be proven logically and completely from the Scriptures or it is just an opinion. Any one who divides the body of Christ with opinionsis sinning against the body of Christ.
says after the second warning excommunicate any who cause divisions, because they are perverted and sinful.
says avoid foolish speculations about doctrine.
warn of heretics rising up in the church causing division.
is an example of dividing over baptisms and in
1 Corinthians 3
we are told God will destroy all who do this.
says even if an angel changes doctrine he is to be accursed.
The Roman Catholic position is the seven sacraments infuse grace. Salvation comes by grace through Sacraments. Council of Trent 1547Pope Clement I, Corinthians 32 - We are not justified by ourselves, nor by our own wisdom, or understanding, or godliness, or workswhich we have wrought in holiness of heart; but by that faith.St. Paul, Ephesians 2 - For by grace you have been saved through faith, and that not of yourselves; it is the gift of God, not of works.
The Lord's Supper
The Roman Catholic position is that grace is infused by participation in the Eucharist, making one more justified and righteous.Council of Trent 1547
Justin Martyr 110-165 Dialogue 70 - The
bread which Christ gave us to eat, in remembrance of His beingmade flesh for the sake of His believers, for whom also He suffered; and to the cup which He gave us to drink, inremembrance of His own blood, with giving of thanks.
177AD Clement of Alexandria, Instructor book 2.2 - They use water mixed with wine for communion, and the wine is justa symbol of the blood of Jesus, but it does sanctify both body and soul to those who take it in faith.
The Roman Catholic position is that grace to overcome original sin is mediated at baptism. Council of Trent 1547
Justin Martyr, First Apology 61 - Baptism is "the manner in which we dedicated ourselves to God after we had been madenew through Christ." Baptism is "for the remission of their sins that are past" and is done in the name of the Father, Son,and Holy Spirit. The apostles taught this rite is to show one has chosen to be born again and repented of his sins, and isilluminated in understanding. So it is called "the regeneration" or "illumination." We are instructed to pray for theremission of sins, then they are brought by us where there is water, and are regenerated in the same manner in which wewere ourselves regenerated.
Justin Martyr, Dialogue 29 - Water baptism is of no need to one who has been baptized of the Holy Spirit.
St. Paul, 1 Corinthians 1.17 - Christ did not send me to baptize, but to preach the gospel.
The Roman Catholic position is that grace is infused by participation in penance, making one more justified and righteous. Councilof Trent 1547
Clement of Alexandria, Stromata 4.24 - The Gnostic heretic Basilides started teaching that after baptism, God forgives
On Church History
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