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1.1 The nature of an invariant. Illustrations
1.1.1 An invariant area
1.1.2 An invariant ratio
1.1.3 An invariant discriminant
1.1.4 An Invariant Geometrical Relation
1.1.5 An invariant polynomial
1.1.6 An invariant of three lines
1.1.7 A Diﬀerential Invariant
1.1.8 An Arithmetical Invariant
1.2. TERMINOLOGY AND DEFINITIONS. TRANSFORMATIONS 21
1.2 Terminology and Deﬁnitions. Transforma-
1.2.1 An invariant
1.2.2 Quantics or forms
1.2.3 Linear Transformations
1.2.4 A theorem on the transformed polynomial
1.2.5 A group of transformations
1.2.6 The induced group
1.2.7 Cogrediency
1.2.8 Theorem on the roots of a polynomial
1.2.9 Fundamental postulate
1.2.11 Analytical deﬁnition
1.2.12 Annihilators
1.3 Special Invariant Formations
1.3.1 Jacobians
1.3.2 Hessians
1.3.3 Binary resultants
1.3.4 Discriminant of a binary form
1.3.5 Universal covariants
2.1 Homogeneity of a Binary Concomitant
2.1.1 Homogeneity
2.2.1 Deﬁnition
2.2.2 Theorem on the index
2.2.3 Theorem on weight
2.3 Simultaneous Concomitants
2.3.1 Theorem on index and weight
2.4 Symmetry. Fundamental Existence Theo-
2.4.1 Symmetry
3.1 Invariant Operators
3.1.1 Polars
3.1.2 The polar of a product
3.1.3 Aronhold’s polars
3.1.4 Modular polars
3.1.5 Operators derived from the fundamental postulate
3.1.6 The fundamental operation called transvection
3.2.1 Symbolical Representation
3.2.2 Symbolical polars
3.2.3 Symbolical transvectants
3.2.4 Standard method of transvection
3.2.5 Formula for the rth transvectant
3.2.7 Fundamental theorem of symbolical theory
3.3 Reducibility. Elementary Complete Irreducible
3.3.1 Illustrations
3.3.2 Reduction by identities
3.3.3 Concomitants of binary cubic
3.4 Concomitants in Terms of the Roots
3.4.1 Theorem on linear factors
3.4.2 Conversion operators
3.4.3 Principal theorem
3.4.4 Hermite’s Reciprocity Theorem
3.5. GEOMETRICAL INTERPRETATIONS. INVOLUTION 75
3.5 Geometrical Interpretations. Involution
3.5.2 Projective properties represented by vanishing co- variants
4.1.1 Gordan’s series
4.1.2 The quartic
4.2 Theorems on Transvectants
4.2.1 Monomial concomitant a term of a transvectant
4.2.3 Diﬀerence between a transvectant and one of its terms
4.3 Reduction of Transvectant Systems
4.3.2 Fundamental systems of cubic and quartic
4.3.3 Reducible transvectants in general
4.4 Syzygies
4.4.1 Reducibility of ((f,g),h)
4.4.2 Product of two Jacobians
4.5 The square of a Jacobian
4.5.1 Syzygies for the cubic and quartic forms
4.5.2 Syzygies derived from canonical forms
4.6 Hilbert’s Theorem
4.6.1 Theorem
4.6.2 Linear Diophantine equations
4.6.3 Finiteness of a system of syzygies
4.7 Jordan’s Lemma
4.7.1 Jordan’s lemma
4.8.1 Deﬁnition
4.8.3 Covariant congruent to one of its terms
4.8.4 Representation of a covariant of a covariant
GORDAN’S THEOREM
5.1 Proof of the Theorem
5.1.1 Lemma
5.1.2 Lemma
5.1.3 Corollary
5.1.4 Theorem
5.2.1 System of the cubic
5.2.2 System of the quartic
6.1 Simultaneous Systems
6.1.2 Linear form and cubic
6.2 System of the Quintic
6.2.1 The quintic
6.3 Resultants in Aronhold’s Symbols
6.3.1 Resultant of a linear form and an n-ic
6.3.2 Resultant of a quadratic and an n-ic
6.4.1 Boolean system of a linear form
6.4.2 Boolean system of a quadratic
6.4.3 Formal modular system of a linear form
6.5 Associated Forms
7.1.1 Deﬁnition
7.1.2 Theorem on Aronhold operators
7.1.3 Partial degrees
7.1.4 Resultants are combinants
7.1.5 Bezout’s form of the resultant
7.2 Rational Curves
7.2.1 Meyer’s translation principle
7.2.2 Covariant curves
8.1 Binary Semivariants
8.1.1 Generators of the group of binary collineations
8.1.2 Deﬁnition
8.1.3 Theorem on annihilator Ω
8.1.4 Formation of seminvariants
8.1.5 Roberts’ Theorem
8.1.6 Symbolical representation of seminvariants
8.1.7 Finite systems of binary seminvariants
8.2 Ternary Seminvariants
8.2.1 Annihilators
8.2.2 Symmetric functions of groups of letters
8.2.3 Semi-discriminants
8.2.4 The semi-discriminants
8.2.5 Invariants of m-lines
8.3 Modular Invariants and Covariants
8.3.1 Fundamental system of modular quadratic form, mod- ulo 3
9.1.3 Fundamental theorem of symbolical theory
9.1.4 Reduction identities
9.2 Transvectant Systems
9.2.1 Transvectants from polars
9.2.2 The diﬀerence between two terms of a transvectant
9.2.3 Fundamental systems for ternary quadratic and cu- bic
9.2.4 Fundamental system of two ternary quadrics
9.3 Clebsch’s Translation Principle
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A Treatise on the Theory of Invariants - Glenn

A Treatise on the Theory of Invariants - Glenn

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Invariants and arguments
Invariants and arguments

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05/18/2013

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