Welcome to Scribd, the world's digital library. Read, publish, and share books and documents. See more
Download
Standard view
Full view
of .
Save to My Library
Look up keyword or section
Like this
91Activity

Table Of Contents

0 of .
Results for:
No results containing your search query
P. 1
Permaculture Plants for the Northeast

Permaculture Plants for the Northeast

Ratings: (0)|Views: 5,696 |Likes:
Published by Mark Krawczyk
This is a copy of Mark Krawczyk's senior thesis entitled 'A Directory of Useful Plants for the Northeast.' It contains profiles of 116 multifunctional plant species for use in permaculture and productive landscape design and is geared towards hardiness zone 5. For more information and additional resources, contact Mark
This is a copy of Mark Krawczyk's senior thesis entitled 'A Directory of Useful Plants for the Northeast.' It contains profiles of 116 multifunctional plant species for use in permaculture and productive landscape design and is geared towards hardiness zone 5. For more information and additional resources, contact Mark

More info:

Categories:Types, Research
Published by: Mark Krawczyk on Apr 15, 2009
Copyright:Attribution Non-commercial

Availability:

Read on Scribd mobile: iPhone, iPad and Android.
download as PDF, TXT or read online from Scribd
See more
See less

07/24/2013

pdf

text

original

 
52
 Abies balsamea
Common name: Balsam Fir Family: PinaceaeRange: Northern North American native [10,16,33]; Widely distributedthroughout this region [16,33]Habitat: Woodlands [16,33], mountains, cool, moist areas, low swampy grounds,well-drained hillsides [57]Hardiness: 2-3 [10]Other Common Names: Balsam [1,10], Eastern Fir [10]
Primary Uses:
Firewood, Waterproofing Agent, Wildlife Habitat, Medicine, Oil, Tea
Physical Characteristics
Balsam fir is a medium-sized coniferous tree that grows to a height of about seventy-fivefeet [10,33]. Bark is rather smooth and only begins to furrow upon old age [16]. It also
 
 53
 bears blisters that are filled with pitch [16]. Branches are nearly horizontal [16]. Leavesare flat, about
¾
inches long, silvery on the underside and spread horizontally from the branches [16,33]. Cones are erect, about three inches long and disintegrate in the fall,leaving behind the upright axis on which they formed [16,33].
History
Information unavailable.
Edible Uses
 Leaves, Tea
The foliage of balsam fir can be brewed as a tea [1]. Though it is best to use the youngspring growth, that of any age will do just fine [1].Also, in emergency situations, the inner bark can be stripped away and eaten either rawor dried and ground into flour [16]. As this may likely damage the tree, this is not arecommended use.
Medicinal Uses
 Laxative, Cold Remedy, Sore Throat, Antiseptic, Diarrhea, Poultice
The needles of balsam fir can be used to make a laxative tea [37].Sap can be chewed as a cold remedy while an infusion of the sap can be used for sorethroats [37].Resin from the tree is used throughout the world as an antiseptic and a healing agent [56].The buds, cones and inner bark can be taken as a diarrhea remedy [37]. Native Americans made pillows stuffed with balsam fir needles, believing that their aroma helped keep them from catching cold [37].Gum, made from the resin of the tree, can be applied as a poultice to skin wounds andirritations [37].
Other Uses & Ecological Functions
Oil, Timber, Firewood, Waterproofing Agent, Shade, Wildlife Habitat 
 Balsam fir is an outstanding Christmas tree as it retains its needles for a much longer timethan the spruces [48].
 
54
An aromatic oil can be distilled from the bark or needles [48].Balsam fir can be cultivated as a timber species. Its wood has straight grain, is very lightand weak and weighs twenty-four pounds per cubic foot [10,56]. It is often used inconstruction and for paper pulp and boxes and crates [10]. Wood can also be used for fuel [37]. Native Americans used the pitch as a waterproofing agent for the seams of their canoes[37,56]. The average yield is about eight to ten ounces per tree [56].Also, the resin blisters that line the bark contain ‘Canada Balsam’, which is used as a gluein making compound lens and microscope slides [16].Balsam fir can be grown as a year round shade tree.As an evergreen, balsam fir provides essential winter (and year round) habitat for manytypes of wildlife.
Cultivation Details
Balsam fir prefers full sun though it is very tolerant of shade [10,56]. Also, it prefersmoist, acidic soil conditions with a pH as low as 5 [10,56]. Trees are shallow rooted andthus are vulnerable to high winds [56].Balsam fir is a fast-growing tree [56]. After ten years of cultivation, balsam firs willlikely have grown to about fourteen feet [10].
Known Hazards
 
 None found.

Activity (91)

You've already reviewed this. Edit your review.
1 thousand reads
1 hundred reads
Corina Paula liked this
westislandcuz liked this
xxxrainbowxxx liked this
efraim75 liked this
roherbs liked this
zlatojce liked this

You're Reading a Free Preview

Download
/*********** DO NOT ALTER ANYTHING BELOW THIS LINE ! ************/ var s_code=s.t();if(s_code)document.write(s_code)//-->